Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf

Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ah

i need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?

The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooey

What can you do with dried figs?

Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%

wat can i do with figs?

I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural form

when is the best time to prune a fig tree?

Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be dormant...no further growth or leaf pruduction

What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?

This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...

if i ate dried figs all day?

that is a alot of fiber lol

Edible unclonable functions

Figure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.

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Solar Street Light Market Is Growing Globally
The solar street light industry is growing exponentially with governments and organizations across the country and the globe offering incentives for solar installation. In the United States over 200 city mayors and city managers have committed to going 100% renewable by 2030. This growth is also being fueled by the increasing cost of traditional fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas power plants while renewables are going down. Renewables just surpassed fossil fuels for the first time ever last month. The government of India is planning to replace 35,000,000 street lights and almost 800,000,000 incandescent light bulbs with LED lights.Solar installers say cost per kw-hr is total charge/kw-hr from elect. co., but why would elect co agree to free use of their grid?The electric company is probably already charging you a connection fee and for the average household, that fee should not depend if you receive, send power, or how much power you use. (It is a little more complex then that) But that will not prevent them from trying to maximize profits while they still can.What improvements are needed to make pv Solar Installations better?Snow is a much more difficult problem. An inch of snow overnight pretty much trashes power output until it melts off or is swept off. Right now, my solution is a ladder and a long-handled squeegee. A better way would be appreciated. ----how can I find an pv solar installer to get some experience?hi, i would use yell.com and find companys in your area and ask them if you could do some free days with them to gain experience. Im sure they would not mindHow many kW can an average village in India run off of? (Iu2019m looking to do solar installations.)Respectfully Quora is not the place to ask a question like this. You and you alone should be answering this question. The fact that you don't know the answer means that your education in the field of solar energy is woefully lacking. An organization called SEI or Solar Energy International, based in Paonia, Colorado, USA has many online solar programs and some of it is tailored to the developing world. Google them to get their website and I highly recommend their courses. Most of my formal education in solar is with them. How many kW can an average village in India run off of? (I'm looking to do solar installations.)10 tips on how to choose solar panels company - Guangdong Prostar NewFinding a great solar panels company to install your solar panels can be intimidating. Follow these tips to help make the right choice. There are a lot of solar companies out there. How do you choose? If you've read our Solar Panels Installation Manual from the start, you've made sure your is house energy efficient. You know more than you ever thought you would about the electric grid and the carbon footprint of solar panels versus fossil fuel power plants. You've done the math and figure that you are going to save thousands of dollars over the next two decades if you install solar. And you know how you are going to pay for it all. People get a little nervous about picking a solar installer because solar technology is still unfamiliar to a lot of people. Pretty much every homeowner has had to call a plumber at some point, but solar... that's something most people have never dealt with. How do make sure that you find the best contractor? In many ways, hiring a solar contractor is much the same as hiring a contractor to do any home project. Do not be intimidated by the technical nature of solar: if you do some due diligence and ask the right questions, you will be fine. This guide will help. Now what? How do you choose the best solar installer? Here's the tips that will help guide you to a good decision: Get in the right mindset We do not want to scare you or anything, but just be aware that buying solar is more complicated than. But it's also less work than remodeling your kitchen. So be prepared to do some work, but it's really not that bad. Just go into it with the right frame of mind. You are hiring a contractor. You will need to carefully review a contract and make a couple decisions, but not nearly as many decisions as if you were redoing your bathroom or kitchen. On the other hand, there are some companies out there that want make the home solar buying process a little bit like picking a flight or a hotel. We think that this is bad for the consumer for a number of reasons. First of all, this approach emphasizes price over other important considerations. It's okay to just go with cheapest option if you are , say, renting a car for the weekend - one company's Toyota Corolla is the same as a Corolla from any other. But solar panels are a product that are going to last you 25-30 years. Workers are going to come to your house and bolt a lot of equipment to your roof. It's a major purchase, so it's important to really understand the details of the product before you make such an important decision. Second, it encourages people to gloss over the important details of the equipment that you are buying. You might be prone to do this because solar can involve an intimidating number of technical aspects like watts, voltage, AC/DC, efficiency ratings, electric meters and monitoring systems. But, we promise, you do not need an engineering degree to figure this stuff out. So do not just make your decision on price. Consider the quality of the contractor and the contract details. Imagine that you want to do a big home renovation. You are going to make your dream kitchen! It's going to look just like the magazines. So you come up with a wish list of things that you want to have: shiny stainless appliances, granite countertops, a big island, wine fridge, that sort of thing. Oh, because you've got an older home where everything is a little bit crooked, you want the contractor to tear everything down to the studs and also install a new floor. Then you come across a website that promises to give you an accurate quote for all of this, just by filling out a form. No phone calls. No contractor will even come to your home to take a look around. Would you trust a quote like that? No, obviously not. If you are doing a kitchen remodel, a competent contractor needs to make a site visit so they can identify problem areas that will cause labor or materials costs to go up. Are there structural aspects to the space that will make the work more difficult? Is there electrical or plumbing work that needs to be upgraded? Is there a chance that your floor tiles have asbestos? All of these things would cause your estimate to go up, but none of them can be identified without a person coming to your home. Problems that cause solar costs to go up Solar panels and racking are heavy and last for decades, so a good contractor will need to evaluate the condition of your roof. Is the roofing material and decking in good condition? Do you have roof drainage issues that need to be addressed first? What is the size of your current electric service panel, and will it handle the additional load? Do wiring or circuit breakers need to be upgraded? Do you have landscaping that will cause shading problems after a few years' growth? Nobody on the internet can promise an accurate quote for your solar project if they do not come to your home to assess these kinds of things. A lot of people do not like sales calls. That's understandable. But for a project like a solar installation, you have to make an exception. In this case, you are going to get a phone call, and somebody is going to come to your house. This is a good thing. Get more than one quote Just like with your dream kitchen project, you need to get multiple quotes. This is not only to get a fair price, but also to compare the different materials, warranties, and credentials of the companies that you are evaluating. For example, one of the most important details of a solar installation is how the racking is secured to the roof and waterproofed. Ask the contractor exactly what methods and materials will be used. What is the fastening system, and what flashing and sealants are used to waterproof it? Or, maybe one installer insists that microinverters are the only way to go, while another contractor says that they would use string inverters for the project. In that sort of situation, you need to be prepared to ask each contractor why they selected one type of equipment over another. Never select a company only on price Everybody likes to save money, but do not save money on your solar photovoltaic system by simply going with the cheapest quote. There are real differences in equipment and installation quality . While it's very possible that your best installer will also be the cheapest, you can not know until you closely evalulate the details of the contract and materials. Conversely, going with the most expensive installer does not guarantee higher quality either. The biggest solar panels company installers, usually do not want to sell you a solar system. Instead, they tend to push you to rent one instead using financial products such as solar leases and power purchase agreements (PPAs). These financial products result in higher profits for them, and a lower financial return for you. There are a number of reasons why these financial products are often bad for consumers, but one of the key reasons is the inclusion of escalator clauses that automatically increase your cost of electricity every year, even if the utility company holds their prices flat. In addition, many of these large national installers have poor reviews and have even faced lawsuits by state governments. Prefer local companies that have been in business for a long time When you get a quote, we prefer local solar panels company that have been in business for a long time and have a strong presence in the community. Quite often, these are electrical companies that have decades of experience that have added solar installation to their portfolio. One reason is the obvious fact that a company does not stay in business for decades if they do lousy work. But the most important reason is that in order for a contractor to honor their labor warranty with you, they need to still be in business. The labor warranty, which is separate from a manufacturer's warranty, could be 5 to 10 years long, and even more with a few companies. With the explosive growth of residential solar across the country, a lot of new companies have sprung up overnight, especially in states like California. A company that has been in business for only a couple years might do great work, but running a company profitably for decades is a different skill than installing solar panels. Your best chance of having a company be around to service your system years from now is to pick one with a long track record. Be wary of brand new solar companies that have been in business for only a couple years. If you are independently doing research on solar installer companies, be selective about the review sites that you use. You will find sites, including ones that specialize in reviewing solar installers, that allow companies to appear as featured companies in their listings in exchange for a fee. This is a controversial practice , one we think that is misleading to the consumer. Which sites should you trust? Start with the BBB.org, which contains both reviews and a platform where consumers can file complaints with the Better Business Bureau, and companies are able to respond. Google Local Business is another site we think is reliable and does not offer paid placement. A few years ago, Yelp was accused of extortion , but the class action that followed was dismissed, and we think the company answered the controversy reasonably. Fake reviews are a different issue, and one that is more difficult to address. For this reason, we recommend you start with BBB, which uses human reviewers to check submissions. Check that your contractor is licensed The first thing to do is understand what type of license is required by solar installers in your state. The Interstate Renewable Energy Council maintains a website that lists what is required. Be aware that licensing for solar photovoltaic (PV) may differ from the requirements for solar thermal (which is used for hot water heating), so read carefully. Once you know what the requirements are, you can ask your contractor for their license so that you can look it up at your state's licensing board. California and Nevada, for example, make these databases searchable online, and also tell you how long the license has been active and whether the contractor is bonded. Check online to see what your state provides. Many companies list their license number right on their website, so you can do this check in just a few minutes. Never work with a company that is not properly licensed. There are many different components in a photovoltaic system, and each is covered by a different warranty from their manufacturer. It's crucial that the installer fully explain each one. The solar panels company should provide a warranty of the workmanship and components of the system, and cover the labor and replacement costs of any failing components. Photovoltaic panels have their own warranty, and often this is specified in two parts: one warranty covering materials and workmanship, and another warranty period covering their power output. Solar panels normally degrade over time, producing a little less power each year. (This degradation should be less than 1% per year.) The panel warranty will certify that it will continue to produce a given percentage of the original power output after a number of years. A 25 year power warranty is typical, and the product warranty should be at least 10 years and is sometimes long as 25. The inverter system is a critical part of the system, and will have its own warranty period. 10 to 25 years is typical. The racking system needs to hold up to potentially extreme weather for a couple decades. You want to make sure it has a strong warranty - at least 20 years. Are you getting batteries? It's a pricey component, so be sure you know what the warranty is. Meet your solar panels company contractor in person and ask a lot of questions We mentioned already that you should always have a face-to-face with your potential solar installer, right? Once you have an actual human person in front of you, that's the time to ask some important questions. Sometimes, the first person you meet with wo not be technical and can not answer all your questions on the spot. They might need to consult with other people on their team. That's okay. Just be sure that all your questions are clearly answered before you sign a contract. If you have not already checked that the installer has the proper licensing for your state, now is the time to do so. Also ask if their installers are NABCEP certified. What incentives are available? Use our calculator to find out about major incentives, but your solar installer may know about other local rebates. Be sure to understand if the owner receives the credits, or if the installer does and passes them onto the customer. Confirm if net metering is available to you, and make sure that you clearly understand how it works. (You can read our article What is net metering? for a primer. The estimate should list the price of individual components and labor: modules, inverters, racking, labor, electrical work, and other costs should be itemized. The contract should indicate exactly when payment is due, and what the payment schedule is (if any). You will receive a site plan that visually indicates the layout of the system components on your home, which includes the placement of the panels, inverters, disconnect switch, and meter. The installer will give you an electricity production estimate for the system in a year with average weather. Compare this with your average usage, and make sure that you are happy with the system output. Ask about labor and component warranties. Discuss the details of the solar panels, inverters, and racking system. Systems that are tied into the grid will require approval from the utility company, and possibly an inspection. Ask about the requirements and timeline of these. Your local code may require an engineering structural inspection before work begins, and an electrical inspection after work is completed. Ask what is required and when in the project timeline they occur. Your interconnected pv system will most likely require that your utility company install either a new bidirectional meter, or a second meter alongside your existing one. There may be a fee charged for this. Be sure to ask. Find out how you will monitor the system output. This will either be a display on the inverter, or a website or smartphone app. Ask if there is recommended system maintenance. If your roof needs repair, find out labor charges for removing and reinstalling the hardware. For component failures that happen after the installer's warranty, ask about the process for making a manufacturer warranty claim and having the component replaced. What are the different types of Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)?
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