Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf

Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ah

i need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?

The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooey

What can you do with dried figs?

Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%

wat can i do with figs?

I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural form

when is the best time to prune a fig tree?

Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be dormant...no further growth or leaf pruduction

What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?

This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...

if i ate dried figs all day?

that is a alot of fiber lol

Edible unclonable functions

Figure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.

GET IN TOUCH WITH Us
recommended articles
News
Basic Configuration and Market of Solar Outdoor Lamps in the Market
Basic Configuration and Market of Solar Outdoor Lamps in the Market
Compared with ordinary LED lamps, solar street lamps have built-in lithium batteries or lead-acid batteries and are charged by one or more solar panels. Generally, the charging time is about 8 hours and the use time is up to 8-24 hours. Generally with charging or remote control function, the shape varies according to user needs.Solar energy signal light plays an important role in navigation, aviation and land traffic signal light. Many local power grids can not supply power, while solar energy signal light can solve the problem of power supply. The light source is mainly led with small particle directional light. Good economic and social benefits have been achieved.The light source power of solar lawn lamp is 0.1 1W, and small particle light emitting diode (LED) is generally used as the main light source. The power of solar panel is 0.5 3W, and secondary batteries such as 1.2V nickel battery can be used.Solar landscape lamps should be used in squares, parks, green spaces and other places. Various shapes of low-power LED point light sources, line light sources and cold cathode shape lamps are used to beautify the environment. Solar landscape lamp can get better landscape lighting effect without damaging green space.The solar energy sign lamp is used for the lighting of night guidance indication, door plate and intersection sign. The requirement for luminous flux of the light source is not high, the configuration requirement of the system is low, and the usage is large. The light source of identification lamp can generally adopt low-power LED or cold cathode lamp.Solar street lamps are used in rural roads and rural roads. At present, they are one of the main applications of solar photovoltaic lighting devices. The light sources used include low-power high-pressure gas discharge (HID) lamp, fluorescent lamp, low-pressure sodium lamp and high-power LED. Due to the limitation of its overall power, there are few cases applied to urban trunk roads.Solar insecticidal lamps are used in orchards, plantations, parks, lawns and other places. Generally, fluorescent lamps with specific spectrum are used, and more advanced LED purple lamps are used to trap and kill pests through their specific spectral line radiation.Small solar power generation system uses LED as light source, which can be used in field activities or emergencies.Solar courtyard lamps shall be used for lighting and decoration of urban roads, commercial and residential communities, parks, scenic spots, squares, etc. The utility lighting system can also be changed into a solar lighting system according to the needs of users.
Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf
Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ahi need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooeyWhat can you do with dried figs?Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%wat can i do with figs?I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural formwhen is the best time to prune a fig tree?Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be dormant...no further growth or leaf pruductionWhat does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...if i ate dried figs all day?that is a alot of fiber lolEdible unclonable functionsFigure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.
Development Direction of Solar Street Lamp Manufacturers
Development Direction of Solar Street Lamp Manufacturers
There are many solar street lamp manufacturers. In the face of fierce competition in the industry, solar street lamp manufacturers have to face some problems if they want to develop. If they want customers to find you or patronize you again, the premise is that you are a good manufacturer in all aspects, What kind of development direction should solar street lamp manufacturers have now?If the solar street lamp price has an impact on customers, it can only be that the solar street lamp manufacturer has not really succeeded. Because the price war is never an inevitable factor for the development of manufacturers. Today, you can give customers a very low price and reduce the street lamp price by reducing the Watts actually needed by customers. It may not be guaranteed that another manufacturer will use the same method to reduce the price and attract customers. You are lowering the price, and your opponent is also lowering the price. In this way, long-term development will only hurt both sides.Therefore, the price war is not the correct development direction of solar street lamp manufacturers. The correct direction should be to focus on product production, improve product quality and cost performance, and do a good job in after-sales service at the same time. It's like a 99 yuan smartphone and a Samsung phone with hundreds or even 3000 yuan. There is a big difference in price, but we still choose Samsung phone because of its high brand, good performance and cost performance in all aspects. Therefore, the development direction of solar street lamp manufacturers should not tangle in price, but do a good job in their products and improve their brand.
Industry: LED Industry Reshuffle Through Three Forces
Industry: LED Industry Reshuffle Through Three Forces
The collapse of small and micro led enterprises last year has opened the curtain of the reshuffle of China's LED industry. Since the beginning of this year, three major factors, such as the rising threshold of government procurement, the continuous tide of IPO listing and the introduction of industry standards, will accelerate the process of reshuffle in the LED industry.On March 20 this year, the "2012 financial subsidy promotion project for semiconductor lighting products" organized by the Ministry of finance, the national development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of science and technology held a domestic public bidding in Beijing, involving led downlights and reflective self ballasting LED lights for indoor lighting, LED street lights and led tunnel lights for outdoor lighting, Nearly 300 bidding representatives from 110 enterprises across the country participated in the bidding activities.The national development and Reform Commission made it clear that in 2012, the Chinese government will spend 40 billion yuan on the procurement of LED street lamps and provide 30% financial subsidies to LED street lamp users. Since March this year, all lighting projects and new planning areas invested by the provincial government have used LED electrodeless lamps in the field of public lighting, which is estimated to bring a market of hundreds of billions of yuan.Don't think that the government will "sprinkle pepper" again. An entrepreneur who participated in the bidding on March 20 revealed that the national bidding raised the threshold. For example, products should have energy-saving certification. The province also invited tenders for LED products entering the indoor lighting of public works this year. So far, downlights of 3 enterprises, spotlights of 3 enterprises, bulb lamps of 6 enterprises and fluorescent lamps of 22 enterprises have won the bid.Facing the industry pattern of "small and scattered", the government began to realize that it is necessary to support powerful enterprises to become bigger and stronger.More and more led enterprises are listed, which will become another important force for industry integration. After development in recent years, the total number of Listed Companies in the LED industry has been close to 40, and not a few are lining up for listing. It is expected to produce some industry leaders who can compete with international giants.According to the data of provincial Lighting Appliance Association, from 2010 to now, more than 100 LED projection lamp enterprises have completed the share reform, and the Pearl River delta accounts for 51.5%; The listed led enterprises account for about 61.5%, including Hongli optoelectronics, Zhouming technology, etc; There are also some ready to be listed, such as Shenzhen Jiawei Co., Ltd., which exports solar LED outdoor lights for 1 billion yuan a year, and will be listed soon.After the listing of led enterprises, it is not only conducive to establish their own good brand image in the chaotic market, but also can use capital means to acquire and merge, expand themselves and purify the market. Zhouming technology said that if it encounters a good project, it does not rule out the possibility of acquisition.The third force of integration comes from the continuous improvement of industry standards. The national standardization management committee recently held the first working meeting of the semiconductor lighting standard leading group, involving the national development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of science and technology, the Ministry of industry and information technology, the Ministry of housing and urban rural development, the Ministry of Finance and other departments. This is the first time that the industry has uniformly planned and deployed the semiconductor lighting standardization work at the national level Light source and lamps, lighting application and energy efficiency.The Provincial Department of science and technology will also announce the progress in the formulation of semiconductor lighting standards this week. At present, 130 standard items have been listed, and led enterprises can participate in the revision of industry standards through bidding.It can be predicted that with the gradual improvement of industry standards, the LED metal halide lamp industry will bid farewell to the mixed situation. In the upcoming 12th Five Year Plan for semiconductor lighting, the state pointed out that by 2015, the scale of semiconductor lighting industry will reach 500 billion yuan, and cultivate 20 30 leading enterprises with independent brands and independent intellectual property rights, and 40 50 innovative high-tech enterprises
A Guide to the Wholesale Solar Light Street Suppliers
A Guide to the Wholesale Solar Light Street Suppliers
How wholesale solar light street suppliers worksMost of the world's people live in countries that do not have laws on how to operate their own electricity. If you are looking for a reliable source of solar light then the best place to start is with an authorised dealer. You can also check out their website and contact them if you have any questions. Most of the people who sell solar light products use local hardware, some are based in cities and some are based in cities. This means that they can get a discount on their solar light purchases.What is the difference between wholesale solar light and wholesale solar light?' 'No one knows how to do it, but what we do know is that there are two types of solar lights, either in the form of LED or solar lights, and these lights use an array of LEDs. In wholesale solar light street lights, you can get an array of different LED lights for different applications. The biggest advantage of wholesale solar light street lights is that they are able to create a wide range of colors and styles to match the surroundings of the area.The main purpose of wholesale solar light street is to make sure that we have enough bulbs and other electrical equipment to use in our home. They also help us to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. So it is important to choose the right kind of solar light so that we can be using the best products and provide good service to our customers. It is not only about energy efficiency but also about providing a better lighting experience to our customers. If you want to learn more about wholesale solar light street please visit www.hazardsandconnections.com.If you have an idea of how solar light street lights work then we can try to put it into practice. We are able to offer them in different shapes and sizes, so you can get a good idea of how they work. The main difference between wholesale solar light street lights and solar light street lights is that they use the same types of materials as conventional street lights. This means that they use the same kinds of material as traditional street lights, so you can choose the type of material you want and be sure to use the right type of material for your project.Types of wholesale solar light street suppliersHow to choose the right solar light commercial furniture? There are two types of solar light commercial furniture: natural and electric. A good solar light commercial furniture will work in any type of home or office, but also be used for recreational purposes. You can find many different types of solar light commercial furniture at low prices. We recommend choosing the right type of solar light commercial furniture for your needs. This will make your living room look better and save you money.Most of the money we make goes into our electronics and some of the rest goes into our electricity bills. This is how we spend our money. A lot of it goes into our car, which is an object that we use to drive around in. The majority of the money goes into our vehicles and most of the money goes into our electric cars. If we can't find a way to pay for our lights then we have to spend more money on them. When we buy them they cost less than they used to be. And when we buy them they cost less than they used to be.You need to check what type of wholesale solar light you need. Most of the times, you can save yourself from having to spend hours looking for the best deal on a product that will last you a long time. You can always go for a different type of solar light or buy solar light online from an authorized dealer. When you have found the best deal on solar light, it is best to get in touch with a professional.This article focuses on wholesale solar light street suppliers in Australia. If you are interested in buying wholesale solar light street suppliers then the following article can help you to make informed decisions about the best wholesale solar light street suppliers. You can learn more about wholesale solar light street suppliers by visiting their website or you can find them on their website. Also, if you have any questions about wholesale solar light street suppliers then please send your question to [email protected].How to select the right wholesale solar light street suppliersNo one can predict what will happen to their house in the future. If they are planning to build a large home, then solar lights are going to be an effective way to use them. There are lots of options when it comes to buying solar lights, but if you are looking for a good way to use solar lights then there are some great products that you can choose from. For example, you can buy a small LED solar light bulb for your garden and solar lights for your patio.No one knows what will happen to our industry in the long run. If we don't know what is going to happen to our industry then we can use a combination of data analytics and AI to predict what will happen to our industry. Our systems will work on time and at their best, they will be working well together. It will take us longer to figure out what will happen to our industry in the long run. And it will take us longer to figure out what will happen to our industry in the short run.Most of the people don't have a lot of money to buy solar light fixtures, so they are very often working in an industry that is highly specialized in building products. In order to make sure that they can be efficient and efficient, it is important to look at their research. The next time you need to purchase solar light fixtures, ask for help from your local Solar Plumbing and Heating Company. Most of the time you will get help from your local Solar Plumbing and Heating Company.Many of the people who are looking for wholesale solar light street suppliers, do not have much experience in buying and managing their own business. They need to go through an extensive background in finance and order book, learn how to use credit cards and check how to get the best deal possible. Most of the people who are looking for wholesale solar light street suppliers will be doing business with small-business owners and trying to figure out how to manage their own business.
5 Easy Steps to Build a Wholesale Solar Light Street Suppliers
5 Easy Steps to Build a Wholesale Solar Light Street Suppliers
The Role of wholesale solar light street suppliersThere are two main types of wholesale solar light street suppliers, and you need to consider what kind of products you want to buy and what kind of materials you are buying. When you are looking for a product that is easy to use and simple to install, wholesale solar light street suppliers will provide you with a number of options. They can be made from aluminium, steel, or any other material. You can choose from any type of material that you want and then add your own parts.As we move towards a more energy efficient and competitive marketplace, it is important to note that many of the jobs that are created by renewable energy systems can be eliminated. Many of these jobs can be replaced by other forms of energy in the future. These include installing solar lights in warehouses, storing electricity and cooling their gas or solar panels. We need to use our technology to help us make better decisions about how we use our energy and what we use it for. The current system uses coal, gas, or oil and produces enough heat to power a household for at least 3 hours.If you are considering buying solar light street then there are many things you should look into. There are so many different types of solar light that you can choose from and how much they cost. The amount of money you will save depends on your needs and your budget. If you are interested in buying solar light then it is better to make sure you know what kind of solar light you are looking for. You can get the best deal on solar light by comparing the prices of different solar light with similar models.What are wholesale solar light street supply? Why are they important? Because there are many different types of solar lights and how do they work? Most of the world uses large amounts of solar light bulbs and each year over 400 million people use them. The most common type of solar light bulbs used in commercial buildings are made from non-corrosive plastics. This makes them much more efficient than incandescent light bulbs. They can be cleaned very quickly and have an excellent lifespan. These types of solar light bulbs also work well in schools and universities.Types of wholesale solar light street suppliersSome of the biggest differences between wholesale solar light street and solar light street are in their functionality. The reason for this is because they have different costs. For example, if you buy a product from a local store then you will pay less for the electricity than it would be for your home. In order to save money on electricity bills, you need to choose the right kind of solar light. When you buy a solar light, you need to make sure that it is suitable for your needs. It needs to be designed in such a way that it can withstand high winds and strong winds.How to Choose the best wholesale solar light street suppliers in Delhi? Do not worry, we have many choices available to choose from. All you need to do is select the type of solar light you want and then add it to your shopping cart. And, just take a look at our other blogs: A Guide To Buying A Solar Light.There are many types of wholesale solar light products available, and most of them can be found in the same range of colours. This means that they can be made from various materials, such as glass, aluminium, steel, and more. It is really easy to make small products with low prices and quality products. They can be used in places where electricity is not available. These types of solar light products can be found in different shapes and sizes. If you want to buy solar light products then it is important to check what type of solar light products you are looking for.This is a step forward in solar lighting technology. The system uses renewable energy sources to generate electricity. It can be converted to electricity using the sun and the power is then used to generate electricity for other uses. This makes it possible to save money on electricity bills by buying solar lights at low cost. There are two types of solar lights, one is powered by solar energy and the other is powered by batteries. These are connected to a single solar panel and they can be charged directly from the sun. They are installed in various shapes and sizes and they are effective in producing enough light to keep the load on the panels.How to Choose wholesale solar light street suppliersAs you can see, we have come a long way since the days of solar lights. They are expensive and often overlooked by homeowners. However, they do work well for both home and business owners. It is important to make sure that you get the best deals on solar lights in the market. So, it is best to check if they are getting good deals on solar lights before you decide to buy them. Also, make sure that you have all the necessary software to use in order to get the best deals on solar lights.For more information on wholesale solar light street, contact your local store or ask for a quote. With many online stores selling their products online, you will be able to get a good idea of what kind of solar light you are looking for. Most of the time, it is better to have the right kind of solar light in your hands and choose the best one for you. This will save you time and energy when you buy solar light street.They are so cheap, they can save you a lot of money and be able to buy products that are already in their inventory. They have become very popular with consumers because they are easy to use and efficient. This makes them an ideal choice for home owners who want to have a clean, modern home without having to pay for electricity in the long run. The simple steps that they take to make sure that they have a clean, modern home is just one of the things that they do.Some of the problems that people are facing with their own solar lights are because they don't know how to choose a good one. When you buy a solar light, you need to make sure that it is well designed and built in accordance with the laws of the country. There are many different types of solar lights and some of them can be quite small. Most of the solar lights come with batteries that are also made of glass. These solar lights can be charged by electricity from the sun and have an electric field around them. They can also be used for cooking, sleeping and even lighting your garden.How to Install wholesale solar light street suppliersFor those who are new to solar lights, there are some things you can do to make sure you have installed the right kind of solar lights. There are different types of solar lights and how to install them in your home. The good thing about solar lights is that they don't require any electrical wiring and the circuit board will work as well as it should. It is important to note that if you have an electrical problem then it is likely that you will need to fix it yourself.As we have seen, it is difficult to determine how much of a problem solar light will be when it comes to selling electricity to people in the area. However, with many areas of the country getting grid connection at very low prices, there is a good chance that the problems that are causing grid connection problems will be resolved.When you install solar light poles on your property, it's important to have an appropriate plan in place to make sure they are installed correctly. They should be designed to ensure that the installation is well balanced and do not come into contact with any gas or electricity lines. A good solar light pole installer will work with you to ensure that you have an appropriate plan in place to make sure that they are installed correctly. They should also have proper training on how to install them properly.If you are interested in installing solar light street then please contact your local Solar Light District (aka DFDS) or FDS office. It is easy to install solar light street with little difficulty. All you need to do is just follow the instructions and set up your own system. If you have any problems, please contact your local DFDS office or send an email to [email protected] . Our staff will respond to you as soon as possible.
no data

Contact Us

Copyright2021@KemecoLighting

Service Support

kemeco@kmc-ltd.com

 Copyright © 2021 Kemeco |Sitemap