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I have a sodium vapor lamp on an outdoor light and it goes out when the door is shut is this a bulb problem?

Probably a switch or loose connection problem, the arc should not extinguish when shaken

How does an outdoor light sensitive lamp post work and how do you troubleshoot one that flickers on and off?

Same as previous answer or the sensor itself could be bad as well

2 OutDoor Light Wiring Questions Wire coming thru wall to outside has 2 white wires. New fixture has 3 wires?

you actually need a volt meter to test between either wire and the earth on the outside of your home...the one that reads 120 volts is the hot line mark this one with a black marker or wrap black tape around it....then hook black to black and connect the bare ground wire to the box the lights mount on .

I just installed at 13 watt Compact Floresent Outdoor light, how long will bulb last.?

Fluorescents do not like to go on and off allot. at the end of the bulb is a filament just like on an incandescent that ionizes the mercury in the bulb. Leaving a fluorescent on will make it last longer. generally, these small screw in fluorescent last 8 - 10 times longer

Linking nighttime outdoor lighting attributes to pedestrians' feeling of safety: An interactive survey approach

Citation: Portnov BA, Saad R, Trop T, Kliger D, Svechkina A (2020) Linking nighttime outdoor lighting attributes to pedestrians' feeling of safety: An interactive survey approach. PLoS ONE 15(11): e0242172. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The study was founded by the Israel Science Foundation, which, along with the authors, holds explicit rights over the data collected. As the data used in the analysis contains information on individuals, as well exact coordinates of the locations in which the assessments were performed, the information is sensitive and cannot be shared without the Foundation's consent. However, other researchers may send requests for a de-identified data set directly to the Israel Science Foundation (). Funding: This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant number 400/18). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Public space lighting (PSL) is an important component of the urban environment and has a major contribution to the pedestrians' overall feeling of safety (FoS) and comfort after natural dark -. Effectively, PSL is characterized by several attributes-illuminance, light color temperature, uniformity and glare ,-each of which may influence FoS, as well as energy consumption -, and human health , . PSL is currently designed according to international, national or local standards, such as EN 13201 . However, since the association between the above-mentioned lighting attributes and pedestrians' FoS has not been sufficiently studied , , it is not clear enough how well do the abovementioned standards, albeit technically efficient, contribute to FoS. Moreover, human perceptions of PSL attributes may be influenced by socio-demographic characteristics and may vary according to individual, locational, environmental and temporal circumstances. Therefore, an empirical model that links lighting attributes to FoS and considers various contextual factors is currently lacking. The present study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by developing a PSL-FoS model that links illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare values with FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. Such a model may help to adapt PSL to various settings affecting FoS, and thus may contribute to increased urban residents' satisfaction and wellbeing, while reducing health and ecological risks, and increasing energy efficiency. Several studies have looked into the factors affecting the perceived quality of nighttime illumination by pedestrians , 13-. However, most of these studies were performed in laboratory conditions, which cannot realistically reflect the complexity of outdoor environmental factors (e.g., time, weather, vegetation density and terrain), thus potentially causing biases in the information collected. Studies focusing on outdoor lighting constitute a distinct strand of research , 12, 25, , but they are relatively scarce and entail various limitations. Most of these studies are based on "self-report" questionnaires, which are subjects to various biases and limitations, such as inefficient management of information on measurement time and location during the assessments . Using "paper & pencil" technique to record PSL assessments outdoor after-dark may also pose difficulties, especially to the elderly and visually impaired . Consequently, some respondents may prefer to record their assessments later on, in better visual conditions, which may introduce uncontrolled errors, resulting from memory limitations . Another bias may occur due to insufficient guidance to find the exact location of the designated assessment points. A significant bias may also result from having company during the assessment, such as in the studies of Kelly et al. and Wu , where observers were sent to perform FoS assessments in couples or accompanied by research assistants. In a recent study, Fotios & Johansson examined how pedestrians appraise others' intentions in different outdoor settings. The researchers conclude that as long as a person can identify other pedestrians' faces, PSL is sufficient. Furthermore, the study in question was performed in a simulated built environment, and involved a relatively small number of subjects, which limits its generality. To sum up, we should remark that previous studies that explored potential associations between artificial lighting and FoS have had several limitations. First and foremost, most of such studies were carried out in laboratory conditions . Second, most of them used "paper & pencil" self-administered questionnaires, which entail well-known drawbacks, such as inefficient management of important information in a timely manner . Third, most previous studies were based on a relatively small number of participants , which substantially limits their generality. Finally, none of the studies carried out to date attempted to link different PSL attributes (especially light color temperature) with FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. The study, which results are described in the rest of this paper, attempts to address these limitations by exploring how the abovementioned PSL attributes-illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare-affect pedestrians' FoS in different contextual settings. The multivariate analysis of the recorded data revealed several important findings. First, it was found that locational, socio-demographic, temporal and environmental factors have a significant effect on FoS. Therefore, universal lighting standards cannot be suitable to maintain the desired FoS in all urban areas. The analysis also shows that the minimal levels of illumination required for achieving the same level of FoS differ across cities, being higher in the inland arid city of Beersheba in compare to the coastal cities of Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This finding reconfirms results reported by Svechkina et al , which showed that residents of coastal areas, with often clouded skies and denser vegetation, may be satisfied with lower illumination intensity, in compare to residents of inland arid areas, characterized by stronger daytime lights and less light-obscuring vegetation. Another interesting result stemming from the analysis is that lights perceived as warm tend to generate a better FoS than colder lights, given the same level of illumination. This finding may guide future illumination polices aimed at reducing unnecessary energy waste and preserving a cleaner urban environment. Generally, our findings are in line with the results of Rahm , who demonstrates that PSL, along with individual and environmental factors, have a significant impact on pedestrians' FoS. Nevertheless, the results of the current study are novel in several respects. First and foremost, improving pedestrians' FoS can be reached either by switching the light color temperature from cold to warm, or, alternatively, by increasing illumination. The former approach is less energy consuming and may result in substantial economic and environmental benefits. Second, locational factors (such as different cities and neighborhoods), as well as temporal factors (such as hour of the evening and month of the measurements), which were not assessed in previous studies, were found in the present study to have a statistically significant effect on FoS. It is important to note that in this study, the predicted FoS was linked to assessed PSL attributes, while, alternatively, the level of FoS could potentially be linked to instrumental measurements. Although both approaches-that is, individual assessments vs. instrumental measurements of PSL attributes-have their own merits, in the present study, we preferred to use the former assessment type. Our main reasoning is that people effectively link FoS to their assessment of lighting attributes, not to instrumental measurements, which they are unable to perform. Lastly, we note that this study uses the standard ordered logistic model, which, at least in theory, may lead to erroneous conclusions that some explanatory variables are less significant than they actually are (false negative conclusions). However, since we have found significant effects, the issue is not major and the identified significance levels we have found may be viewed as a lower bound of the true significance. Future studies may consider the use of generalized ordered logistic models -, to reduce this concern. An explanatory model linking FoS with different PSL attributes, along with controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors, is estimated and reported in this study. To estimate this model, 380 observers were asked to assess PSL attributes in different urban settings during different hours of the evening, as well as to evaluate their perception of FoS associated herewith. For this purpose, a specially designed cellular phone application, CityLightsTM, which represents a novel interactive real-time methodological approach, was designed and employed. This app provides an efficient alternative to the "paper & pencil" questionnaires, commonly used to record observations made during an outdoor experience. Based on cloud technology and GPS, the app enables pre-authorized observers to record their assessments along with temporal and geographic information, while preventing observers from deviating too far from pre-determined reporting points. The app also prevents the same observer to enter the same assessment point more than once, and blocks the use of the app before the natural dark or by unauthorized people. In this manner, the app ensures the accuracy and integrity of assessments. The present study is the second in a series of planned studies, carried as part of a large-scale research project, funded by the Israel Science Foundation. The project aims to model the perceived quality of PSL in urban areas by using an interactive user-oriented approach. The first paper in this sequence aimed to identify only the level of illumination required by pedestrians to feel safe while walking through the streets at night. Concurrently, the present study links different PSL attributes (illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare) to FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. The study was carried out in three large cities in Israel-Tel Aviv-Yafo, Haifa and Beersheba,-along pre-defined routes in 10 different neighborhoods (three-to-four neighborhoods in each city). A representative sample of participants used the CityLightsTM app to report their assessments from 257 pre-designated points, yielding altogether 25,940 individual valid records, which account for different PSL attributes. The results of this study hold a potential for improving pedestrians' FoS through better design of PSL by soliciting interactive responses from local residents and adjusting PSL attributes to their needs. Such a user-oriented approach allows to receive real-time feedback and may thus elevate PSL systems to a new level of interactivity and intelligence. Findings of the study may also guide future PSL polices aiming at increasing energy efficiency and reducing health risks to humans and ecosystems. This goal can be achieved by adjusting not only illumination intensity, but also light color temperature, to the desired levels of FoS, concomitant with desired goals. By venue of this, the results presented in this paper can be of interest for urban planners, environmental law enforcement authorities and decision-makers in local municipalities. In particular, following the results presented in this paper, PSL design for desired FoS can enable temporal and locational variations of illumination intensity and light color temperature and their locational variation, to reflect population makeup and building patterns in different neighborhoods and in different cities, thus helping to achieve a desired level of FoS. In particular, study results may encourage PSL designers to use warmer light, which can generate higher FoS for the same level of illumination. Applying just this strategy may decrease PSL-associated costs, in compare to those generated by the commonly used cold lights. Furthermore, as warmer lights are associated with higher FoS, using such lights may compensate for a reasonable reduction in required illuminance, without compromising FoS. The model estimated and reported in this paper can help to estimate this possible tradeoff between required illumination level and light color temperature for any desired level of FoS. The study findings may guide decision-makers towards improving new urban design and street retrofit projects. For instance, according to our findings, to achieve acceptable FoS levels, street lighting (SL) designers should focus on three main factors-illuminance, uniformity and light color temperature. In doing so, SL designers should keep in mind that, according to the study findings, urban residents appear to prefer warmer lights, which make them feel safer, in compare to cooler (i.e., bluer) lights. It is also important to keep in mind, that illumination levels should reflect contextual settings, considering that residents of cities, in which daytime radiance levels are high, may require more nighttime illumination to feel sufficiently safe after natural dark. As the results of the present study also indicates, in designing PSL installations, planners should account for the demographics of potential users, such as age and gender, which were found in this study, along with the environmental characteristics of different urban settings, which appear to significantly affect FoS perceptions. Temporal factors should also be taken into account. For instance, PSL level should be designed to enable increased intensity in illumination or changing light color temperature towards warm after 22:00, in order to maintain the same level of FoS. Thus, the study may contribute to optimizing PSL standards, which are presently mostly geared towards road traffic rather than to pedestrians' needs. Several interesting topics, which were beyond the scope of the present article, can be addressed in future studies. Two of them hold promising potential to quantify energy savings: the relation between FoS assessments and PSL instrumental measurements, and the potential linkage between illumination intensity and color temperature. Future studies may also increase the FoS-PSL model's validity and credibility by using means, such as a larger number of observers in each neighborhood, additional neighborhoods in each city, additional cities, more diverse urban settings, and various socio-demographic and cultural conditions. Another important future direction for scholarly enquiry is interactions between different FoS predictors, such as e.g., age and gender, and their combined effects of FoS.

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