8x8 Solar Post Cap Buying Guide

2021-09-20
Kemeco
8

On this page, you can find quality content focused on 8x8 solar post cap. You can also get the latest products and articles that are related to 8x8 solar post cap for free. If you have any questions or want to get more information on 8x8 solar post cap, please feel free to contact us.

Kemeco Lighting, one of the most professional manufacturers of 8x8 solar post cap, always sticks to the principle of quality first to win higher customer satisfaction. The product is manufactured under the quality supervision system and is required to pass the strict quality tests before shipment. Its quality is completely guaranteed. Its design is appealing, showing the brilliant and creative ideas of our designers.The response on our products has been overwhelming in the market since launched. Many customers from the world speak highly of our products because they have helped attract more customers, increase their sales, and bring them larger brand influence. To pursue better business opportunities and longer-term development, more customers at home and abroad choose to work with Kemeco.At Kemeco Lighting, we show a strong passion to ensure a great customer service by offering various shipping ways for 8x8 solar post cap, which has been highly praised.
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This novella may actually be a short novel by Joe Haldeman, called Buying Time, also known as The Long Habit of Living in some countries, and published in 1989. Dallas Barr, the protagonist, is one of an elite group of people who are both rich and entrepreneurial enough to repeatedly purchase the Stileman Process, a full physical rejuvenation, whose effects last a decade. The price for this treatment is all the wealth that the purchaser possesses, at a minimum of one million dollars, so those who are capable of acquiring a fortune every ten years get to experience a form of semi-eternal youth. Dallas' love interest, Maria Marconi, another long-lived member of this group, has opted not to purchase rejuvenation again and is due to die a natural death in a few years, but later, she receives a variant of the Stileman treatment whose effects last a natural lifetime, not just ten years. The existence of this treatment is the source of the conflict between Barr and the shadowy Steering Committee, who want to keep the Stileman process, with its deliberate limitations, as the only one available.Dallas and Maria flee off-planet during their work to keep ahead of their assassins, visiting several exotic locations on Earth and in the Solar System. I don't specifically recall if Mars is visited, though I believe so, but they definitely spend some time on an asteroid, which could be part of Jupiter's or Saturn's belt. Joe Haldeman is a published American author, which doesn't square with your memory, but the plot similarities were such that it was worth noting. Since the book is out of print, it is perhaps vaguely possible that someone posted it online.Although I rate my chances of getting this answered low, I thought I'd ask here.In 2005 - 2 years, I stumbled across a novella (might have been 100 pages in length) that was available online for anyone to read in full.Author: Not a professional sci-fi writer, possibly not even a published writer in any genre. In a bio note, he said he was recently retired, had traveled the world in a variety of jobs including government service, and was British (or maybe South African), in any case not American.Style: Deceptively simple, possibly the un-flashiest SF writing I'd ever seen. At the same time, avoided all the pitfalls that novice authors fall into. Sentences flowed, story moved along smoothly. Little use of metaphor. Philosophical musings refreshingly absent. Author does not get in the way of story, at all.Plot: Ah, here's where my memory sadly fails me. I'll try to piece together bits and pieces of the narrative.Starts in a holiday resort in East Africa (Kenya? Somalia?) While the narrator is on the beach barbecuing, someone tries to kill him and barely misses. Retreats to levitating vacation home (anti-gravity apparently has been solved). Seeking answers for who wants him dead and why, travels to Jerusalem. Population now ten times of present, apparently under UN administration. Decides to sign up with military. Is shipped to Mars.We learn that he is several hundred years old, and due for a total body replacement soon. Appears to be independently wealthy but not super rich. On Mars, gets into a tight spot and finds more questions than answers. Possibly a plot by a subversive faction to wrest power from the current one-world government. Moves on to outer solar system, to a moon of Jupiter (or Saturn?) where he is again nearly killed in the frozen wastes of the moon but escapes with his life. Enemies vanquished, he returns to Earth. Final scene is in a glitzy restaurant in a satellite orbiting Earth, where he and girlfriend (wife?) toast his success as stars twinkle through the glass roof and city lights blink from below.Was never able to find that novella again. Possibly the author had put it online in hopes of attracting a publisher, then withdrawn it when no one expressed interest.
15 DIY Fence Post Lighting Ideas That Will Beautify Your Home
Introduction or fence post lightsOur household and other house-related things are definitely full of electrical gadgets. It includes our electric fan, batteries, wall sockets, indoor/outdoor lamps, garden tools, house numbers, heaters, light switches, ceiling fans, outdoor wall sockets, decorative light bulbs, interior lighting, air conditioners, power sockets, garden lights, patio lights, window lights, motion sensor lights, door sockets, or switch plates' could look like this 'Are you planning to beautify your home? Do you know how to add an impressive look to your home? This article will be your guide to light up your home and beautify it.Having a fence to keep your home safe is something every homeowner dreams of. The yard needs to be fenced to keep the kids safe when they play outside. A fence gives a good view of the entire yard and helps your property look its best. Fences also help to keep unwanted visitors away from your home.It is best to take some time to do your research before making any decisions. Find out what your budget is and which products you can afford. Aim to create lighting designs that complement the features of your home.Many of us have noticed that fence lights are not an ideal option for certain kinds of lights because they are quite expensive. A smart solution would be to use LED lights. These lights are extremely cost-effective, long-lasting and a lot of fun to use.This article will provide you with 15 DIY fence post lighting ideas that will beautify your home. From using a LED post light to a lighted privacy light to decorative lanterns. Artificial lights and fairy lights are not only practical, but also very decorative and will help your house stand out.The DIY fence post lighting ideas that you will find in this article are suitable for anyone to use. The people who will be interested in this type of lighting will not only be those who want to light up their fences, but also those who want to give a nice touch to their garden and patio areas. Many people use solar panels and LED lights to light up their gardens and even patios. So if you are looking for DIY fence post lighting ideas, then this article is perfect for you. A good way to make your fences look good is to install lighting. When the lights are lit up, it will look like you have put in some extra effort and thought into your home.Guide to solar post lightsThere are so many DIY fence post lighting ideas that will make your yard look pretty, but sometimes you may be unsure about how to go about the process. Some of the ideas may be obvious and simple to implement, but you may not be sure of what they are. It is important to keep the following tips in mind as you begin to plan your DIY fence post lighting project.If you are tired of doing the lights alone, but still need to add something to your home then a DIY fence post lighting idea is something you should try. Adding a fence post lighting idea to your home will bring some of the shine back to your home and create an extra style for your home. A DIY fence post lighting idea can be created by yourself or you can purchase it from a local home improvement store. It can be a simple DIY fence post lighting idea that you can make by yourself or a big DIY fence post lighting idea that you can purchase from a local home improvement store. A DIY fence post lighting idea can be used to decorate the outside of your home or to beautify the outside of your home.When it comes to DIY fencing, it is important to know that you have many options for lighting your fencing. Many people only want to install lighting for security purposes, but this can also add style and personality to your fence. Lighting your fence not only gives you a unique style, but it also makes your fence more visible and inviting. So, let's explore some DIY fencing lighting ideas that will help you beautify your home.Good lighting for fences is very important. It helps to bring out the features of the fence and is one of the best ways to enhance its look. There are many types of lighting available, and these include lightbulbs, track lights, candle lighting, wall sconces, wall-mounted lamps, recessed lights, recessed can lights, and many more. It is a good idea to choose the lighting type and a matching ceiling type that are good for the type of lighting. You should use a battery-powered wall-mounted lamp for smaller fences, a compact fluorescent lamp for larger fences, and an energy-saving LED lamp for fences that are further away from the house.Our Top 10 Pick of Best Solar Post Lights for 2021I've been doing a lot of outdoor DIY projects recently and have found that it's really easy to light your home using a variety of different DIY projects. A lot of the time it's much easier to do something than to actually do it. When I started this project I wasn't really sure what I was going to do but with a little research and some help from a few people I think I'm on the right track.Best DIY Fence Post Lighting Ideas That Will Beautify Your Home.If you are going to have a post about your fence, you should be sure that you have thought about the lighting and other options that you will need to use. A few examples of fence post lighting could look like this 'best DIY fence post lighting ideas that will beautify your home'.When you go out to buy your fence, you will have to take some time to think about the lighting that you will need. One of the main options that you have is to have lights at the top of the fence. This will make it look neater and tidier. It will also give the look of a clean and neat fence.This is an important aspect of the blog. This is an essential factor for the blog. It should be noted that if a section has some unplanned contents then this is an easy fix. This section can easily be written on the same topic. The best thing about this section is that the information that the blogger gives here is genuine. The article could be presented in such a way that the reader can be sure that the information is authentic. A good content author will have a minimum of one hundred thousand followers on his or her Instagram account. This makes the blog look great. The section can also be used to showcase what a successful content author does. This section should not be long. It should be between 400 to 500 words.FAQs and Tips or fence post lightsCrafting DIY fence post lighting from common materials is a great way to ensure that your fence posts are more aesthetically pleasing. There are many different DIY fence post lighting ideas available on the internet and it is very easy to make your own. The possibilities are endless when it comes to DIY fence post lighting.The use of light and different styles of lighting are often incorporated into fence posts. One can also find some different types of lighting to go with the type of fence. You can also choose to use various lighting types and they can go well with the types of fence.Homeowners have a variety of options for creating decorative lighting at their properties. For example, lighting up your backyard is not a new idea. Backyard gardens have traditionally been the favourite place for gardeners to grow plants. However, as people live in different places, they often have to buy products that do not match their homes. A perfect example of this is when a homeowner wishes to install outdoor lighting. He or she will not be able to purchase an item of lighting that is identical to the lighting he or she wants to have installed. For instance, one might want to buy outdoor lighting that is bright enough to illuminate a patio or a lawn. But another might want a light that will make it easier to read a road sign.The primary reason why DIY fence lighting is so great is that it's cheaper and easier than hiring a professional.An individual with an average level of craftsmanship can install a garden fence as well as can do painting jobs. Some homeowners would choose to paint the fence as it makes it look much more appealing. Many homeowners choose to paint the fence after some simple maintenance. One thing to remember is that paint can be flaky and needs to be sanded if there are holes in the paint. Before painting the fence, one should take the time to thoroughly clean the fence. Once the fence is clean, it can be painted. An individual can use wood stains or paints to make the fence look a lot more appealing. To learn more about these tips, check out the website: http://diyfencepostlighting.com/.
You Can Curtail Your Energy Bill by Installing More and More LED Solar Lights
Industries and offices toil hard, but when it comes to announcing balance sheet, energy bills chew a good amount of profit. To sustain profits, companies have brought a bit of change in their strategy. They are installing more and more LED solar lights, and this has put their gains back on the track. There is no doubt, solar fixtures are gaining popularity, let us know more about them.LED Solar Lights Better Than Pole LightsPreviously Metal Halide Lights were in vogue. With time, LED pole lights became an intrinsic part of streets, walkways; and bridges. For a long period, LED pole lights ruled the market, nowadays solar lights are in vogue. Reason? Superior solar lights run purely on solar energy and perhaps that's why many companies are picking them over conventional pole lights.When there are solar lights, there is no energy billSolar lights run on solar energy, and this makes them money-saving fixture. Globally, big entrepreneurs are investing a lot of money on these lights. According to them, when the world is fighting with energy crises, there is nothing better than solar lights.Let's know more about the most sought after solar designs. LED Solar Spot LightWhen you put these lights amid plants and trees, they illuminate every minuscule detail. Like, a crawling caterpillar which you can not spot from your naked eyes. Here we would like to mention, spotlights provide light equivalent to a 40-watt incandescent bulb. LED Solar Garden LightThese are best for open-air restaurants, walkways, and pathways. When the beam of these lights fell on leaves and flowers, plants appear fresher.LED Solar Street LightThe sun rays recharge these lights. When pitch dark nights envelopes everything, smart solar lights illuminate bridges, roads, highways, and pathways.Conclusion:There are many LED Solar Lights in the market viz. Solar LED Wall Pack, Solar LED Flood Light and Solar LED Street Light, which of the lights meet your need, this you better know. In short, if you are looking for a special light fixture, then stop running around, just type www.ledmyplace.com on Google, and you will surely find an answer to your queryBest Outdoor Solar SpotlightsOne fairly recent innovation in home lighting equipment is the advance of outdoor solar spotlights. In the past many homeowners would have liked to take advantage of outdoor lighting for both decoration and security, but the cost of running outdoor wiring was prohibitive. Hiring landscapers or electricians to string power around your property just was not worth it. But recent advances in solar technology and LED lighting made high quality outdoor solar spotlights affordable and easy to install by almost anyone. As a result, more and more homeowners are enjoying the added safety and beauty of strategic and decorative lights. Of course, not all solar spotlights are created equal. Cheap units can under perform and cost you more in the long run. To help you avoid making a poor choice, we put together this solar spotlight review. For those in a hurry, here are the units we looked at: The field of solar spotlights available to consumers continues to grow. To help you find the right ones for your situation, we went over the top units on the market. We compared features and analyzed owner feedback to help weed out the poor performers. From that research we came up with these picks for the best outdoor solar powered spotlights: These solar landscape spotlights come in a four pack of completely adjustable LED lights with a total of 600 lumens. The included solar powered 18650 rechargeable lithium ion batteries allow for a long-lasting solar charge. These fashionable and practical solar spotlights have 2 brightness modes: Low Light produces 12 hours of use and High Light allows for 6 hours of light output to accommodate all your lighting needs. These solar landscape spotlights ensure automatic detection of brightness and motion, automatically changing from energy storage mode to lighting mode in an instant. They are very durable and are made of high-impact ABS plastic. They boast a unique IP67 waterproof design that can withstand all types of weather and are heat resistant. They are easy to assemble, and you can install them in the ground or wall mount with the included hardware. A repeat customer said all you have to do is just open the box, push in the stake, set the light mode to high or low, tighten or loosen the knob to adjust the angle, plant and enjoy. The 120-degree lighting angle and 90-degree adjustable solar panel angle allows you to adapt the lighting for your needs and modify the position of the solar panel for maximum coverage and light output. The streamlined one-piece design also makes it a cinch to mount to any surface. Just make sure to follow the directions included in the packaging and charge before using. One user noted that the solar landscape spotlights can turn on and off when pulling in the driveway at night with headlights on, but this was to be expected and was only a minor inconvenience. One customer stated these lights must be placed in direct sunlight and may not be as bright if they are not able to charge properly. Another concern is that these cannot be pointed downward because they do not bend beyond a horizontal position, so make sure to keep this in mind during placement as it can affect their performance. This four pack of solar lights make great waterproof outdoor landscape lighting or can be used as spotlight wall lights. They have an auto on and off feature that instinctively detects changes in the environment and switches on and off as needed. They feature a high conversion rate, with 200 lumens output by four super-bright LEDs that are strongly sealed and omit white light. The solar panel and light are independently adjustable - with the light head being adjustable to 90 degrees. The 2200mAh lithium-ion rechargeable 18650 batteries are included for fast charging. There is a separate, fully adjustable light and panel with two lighting modes: Low for 8 to 12 hours of light production and High for light lasting 4 to 6 hours. Many users stated that the button is sealed really well, and the plastic ABS housing makes them waterproof and heatproof to withstand any weather conditions. You can stake these solar powered spotlights into the ground or mount them to any exterior or interior surface with the included hardware. This upgraded version has a lengthened stick to insert deeper in the ground for greater stability during the highest of winds or harshest of environments, enhanced brightness, and the solar panel and battery capacity have been enlarged. They look great in daylight and super bright at night, and customers rave about their simple assembly and easy, no-hassle installation. As with many solar spotlights, working time for this model is weather sensitive. One user warns that the switch must be turned on upon initial setup before use and another that the solar spotlights are a bit bulky. There is limited adjustability because of the non-pivoting solar panel, so positioning matters. One reviewer advises to move them around until you get the look you want. These solar outdoor lights come in a two pack and have an upgraded solar panel measuring a whopping 15.3 square inches. There are three lighting modes: Security with a motion sensor that can detect up to 26 feet within a wide 120-degree angle, Permanent On, and Smart Brightness Control. The third setting is a permanent light on in dark conditions, then it gets brighter for 15 seconds when motion is detected so it wo not bother your neighbors, and if motion continues it stays on. These features also help to conserve battery time, making the light emitted last longer. The included 2200mAh lithium ion 18650 solar rechargeable batteries power PET laminated solar panels and premium LED lights. A customer stated that the solar outdoor lights can last about 6 hours in the summer and 3 hours in the winter after an average day of charging, which can be more on full-sun days. The IP65 technology makes these sealed solar outdoor lights waterproof and heatproof to protect the whole device from the elements. Many customers liked that they can be attached anywhere. One gentleman says you can tie it to a fence, fasten them to a tree, or attach them to a deck or post. They come with sheetrock anchors and screws for easy installation in a closet or a back entrance, just follow the easy instructions for installation and placement to receive maximum sunlight. Also, a buyer cautions that the switch located on the back of the device can be inconvenient, so just make sure to choose the setting you want before permanently mounting. One customer was concerned that the lights can often go out due to cars or pedestrians with flashlights passing by them and there is no adjustment you can make on the device itself to rectify this issue. Otherwise, they were very satisfied with their purchase. Another individual states that the solar panel is always at an angle and cannot be faced straight up. Also, these lights may require additional hardware to install that is not included, like galvanized steel screws to protect from rusting. The four included outdoor solar spotlights feature 200 lumens LED lights that omit a warm white light. The light is always on, but there are two modes: Low and High. Light lasts for 6 to 10 hours after a full charge of the included lithium ion batteries. There is a dusk-to-dawn sensor, which receives environmental feedback to turn the lights off and on in times of low or high light coverage. The fully adjustable light and solar panel allow for maximum coverage and charging ability. The light angle can adjust up to 180 degrees, and the solar panel angle adjusts up to 90 degrees for optimum sun exposure. One customer was surprised how easy setup was, because you can quickly stick them in the ground using the included sturdy posts or wall mount in a few minutes with the included hardware. These outdoor solar spotlights are water resistant, heat resistant, and frost resistant. So, they are safe to use during rainstorms, snowstorms, or extreme heat and humidity, making them an ideal option for all climates. One reviewer mentioned to make sure to turn the manual on and off switch located on the back of the solar panel to the on position before installing and remarked that their lights stay lit for up to 8 to 10 hours on a normal day's charge. Another buyer remarked that the plastic used is not high quality and the lights could require additional silicone caulking to be truly waterproof. These 2-in-1 adjustable solar spotlights emit a warm welcoming light with four LEDs producing a total of 200 lumens. They come in a two-pack and have an automatic on/off sensor that will turn the lights on and off depending on the amount of light it is exposed to. The lights can be wall mounted with the included hardware or staked into the ground. A customer commented that setup was very easy - just attach the included stem to the light and insert it into the ground where you want it. After some simple repositioning, they were casting light on the areas they wanted. They are made of waterproof and heatproof ABS material to tackle any weather Mother Nature can throw at them. These solar spotlights are adjustable up to 180 degrees for the light and solar panel. Both the light and solar panel have their own easy to set vertical angle adjustments. The 2200mAh lithium-ion battery can function 6 to 9 hours after a full solar charge. There are two brightness modes: Low and High for strong and powerful bright focus, and a large solar panel for prime charging. One reviewer suggests for best results, these lights should be charged for 8 hours and must be installed in an area that receives full sunlight every day, otherwise, the battery will not fully charge and this will reduce the amount of illumination produced. Another customer voiced concern that the lights produce more of a spotlight effect, that the light path is a bit narrow and not a floodlight pattern as they would prefer. Otherwise, these solar spotlights met their needs and exceeded their expectations. Outdoor Solar spotlights typically have three main parts: a set of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, a light housing using LED or another high quality and high output lighting source, and a solar panel to catch the sun's rays. During daylight hours, the solar panels capture the sun's energy and then stores it in the lithium-ion batteries. During the evening or when it is dark, the rechargeable batteries power the spotlights. The amount, duration, and quality of light they emit depend upon the amount of charge they can hold and the amount of sunlight they are able to be exposed to. For this reason, it is extremely important to place the outdoor solar spotlights in an area that receives maximum exposure to sunlight for optimal light production. The solar panel may be attached directly to the top of the light housing or it can be attached to the back of the light and protrude upwards and away from the lighting shroud. They come in all shapes and sizes, from spherical to rectangular and small to large for a variety of applications. Oftentimes, solar-powered spotlights can be used indoors or outdoors. Many models come equipped to be installed in the ground using a stake or pole and can also be used indoors or on the sides of buildings or other structures by mounting on a wall or other surface using screws. They also happen to use technology that makes them usable in any weather situation, from the desert heat of the southwest to the brutal winters of the northeast. They have sealed and enclosed cases to keep the elements out. Thus, solar powered spotlights require minimal effort for installation and upkeep. Many models feature automatic dimming or motion sensing characteristics. Many models we reviewed had capabilities of sensing motion up to 50 feet or more away from the installed unit, but this depends on where the lights are installed and what angle capability they possess. A good solar powered spotlight will be able to be adjusted and positioned in a variety of ways and will also have options and modes for brightness or intermittent light exposure. Outdoor Solar spotlights look professional and cost much less than a quote from a landscaper for their wired counterparts. People have reported spending thousands of dollars on entire wired landscape lighting packages, only to discover later that they could have saved money and time if they had just purchased solar powered spotlights and installed them themselves. And you do not have to pay a landscaping company or electrician for upkeep or repairs when an issue arises. An added bonus of using solar powered spotlights is that they can help save you money on electric bills. Many users describe a reasonable decrease in their use and cost of electrical services after installing solar powered spotlights. You no longer have to keep your front or back porch lights on and bother your neighbors with unwanted light coming in their windows all night. For those concerned for the greater good of mankind, these lights also lessen environmental impact by not wasting electricity. They only use what energy they have stored, and many feature an automatic on and off that allows for the lighting fixture to conserve energy when not in use during daylight hours or when intermittent lighting is present. Solar powered spotlights are virtually hassle free. Since these spotlights are wireless, this means no rodents or other animals can wreak havoc on your landscape lighting by chewing the wires - there are none! This also means you do not have to worry about underground wiring when moving objects or replanting in your garden or yard. Here is a good YouTube video that discusses how a set of solar spotlights hold up over time: What are Outdoor Solar Spotlights Used for? Solar spotlights have a variety of applications. They can be enjoyed as an accent to highlight target areas, making them an excellent decorative accent to landscaping features. You can mix warm and cool white lights to add contrast and depth to your landscaping for a dramatic or romantic feel. Use them to light up house numbers for better visibility from the street, or for the main lighting for your yard, garden, driveway, porch, walkway, pool, garage, and patio. Because of their relatively small size and compact design, they really are ideal to place anywhere you want and need light. Outdoor solar spotlights can also provide you and your family with the safety and security of sight in the darkness. Nowadays, porch pirates feel free to come on people's property and steal packages or expensive landscaping features. By using spotlights with a high lumen rating, you can deter thieves and those wishing to do others harm. You can add them to your home for an economical indoor lighting choice. They can easily be installed in closets or areas of your home that receive very little exposure to the sun or daylight. One traveler expressed his opinion that they could be used almost anywhere, as he uses outdoor solar powered spotlights as the main light source for his motorhome or RV for added visibility while camping.
Save the Environment Use Solar Garden Lights
Solar garden lights work on renewable energy that is drawn from the sun's rays. They are the most eco-friendly way of illuminating your garden and home. These lights will not leave any carbon footprints and are completely safe to use. In fact, they have several features and advantages that are beneficial for both you and the environment. The use of these lights reduces the depletion of natural resources. Here are some of the benefits that solar decking lights offer.Solar energy is one of the safest and best forms of energy. Although, the earth receives 174 petawatts of solar radiation, approximately 30 percent of it is reflected back in to the space and the land, oceans and clouds absorb the remaining 70 percent. Solar garden lights use this renewable energy and help to save our depleting sources of energy. These lights get charged during the day from the sunrays and light up in the evening. They also use mirrors to track the sun's rays. Solar energy is also utilized for thermal purpose and in heating water, cooking, air conditioning, and for water treatment like solar disinfection, solar desalination, and solar still.BenefitsSavings - Installation of these lights drastically reduces your electricity bills. These lights do not need electricity connection or charging. The panel is fitted in an open area to draw the sunlight. Natural sunrays are used for lighting and it does not require any kind of electric supply. Solar powered garden lights are a great choice. They not only provide a good lighting source but also cost you nothing in energy and are easy to maintain and easy to install. Portable - These lights are very handy to use. They are portable and can be used for camping and vacation. They are ideal for home and outdoor use because they can be easily shifted from one place to another.Types - You get several types of lights in different designs and styles to suit different needs. Apart from solar garden lights there are round decking lights, square decking lights, ultra thin post lights in stainless steel body, brick lights, glass jar lights, sun jar lights, and moon jar lights.Environmentally Safe - Solar garden lights are completely safe and do not create any kind of waste. Solar lights are non-combustible and do not emit any kind of chemicals or gases. Therefore, it does not cause any air pollution. They are safe if you have children or pets at home. Maintenance Cost - These lights do not require any kind of maintenance. In fact, their installation is so simple that you can do it on your own. There is no need to spend money on installation charge. These lights offer zero maintenance since you do not have to replace the bulb or change wiring, switch boards, and cables. These lights are easy to maintain then electrical garden lights.Indeed, solar garden lights have several advantageous features. Understand your social responsibility and install a solar powered light.
Find Solar Street Light Manufacturer in Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Bihar
Wolta Power System is a brand name known as solar street light manufacturer in Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Bihar etc. The company is offering an extensive range of solar light systems at an affordable price.With the beginning of solar street light system, the difficulty of heavy electric utilization or dependency on power break up has been eliminated out and out. Amid the shortage of traditional light system and reduced capacity of the power grid, social light systems have emerged as an exceptional alternative in the national capital. They're independent of the utility grid.We are well-known recognized as solar street light manufacturer in Uttarakhand, solar street light manufacturer in Rajasthan, solar street light manufacturer in Bihar, solar street light manufacturer in Chhattisgarh, solar street light manufacturer in Jharkhand etc.If you want to purchase street light then feel free to contact Wolta Power System.·RELATED QUESTIONWhy don't hotel rooms have ceiling lights?My hotel building is over 100 years old, so we have ceiling lights. We also need a ladder to change a bulb 11' from the floor. It can take 20 minutes for 1 bulb! This is one reason that we have changed to the longer lasting (and more economical) low-energy bulbs.I would be delighted to have wall lights instead. Retro-fitting them would however be even less economically sound.Higher than average ceilings mean ladders to change the bulbs in ceiling fittings, and this extends the maintenance time and convenience for staff enormously. Even normal height ceilings mean that a chair is needed to swap a bulb out. Wall fittings are so much more convenient for both staff and customers, reducing the time taken to get light again!As Michael Forrest Jones says - anything other than a simple bulb swap requires the power to be cut to the whole circuit (which may be more than just a few rooms). This makes it very awkward to do emergency repairs after dark! -- Been there done that... Go with wall fittings that can be isolated in-room!In short:I have ceiling lights.I don't like them, as they are awkward for maintenance.Replacing them would be expensive and extremely difficult - basically a total rewire of the hotel lighting system.Design engineers are not stupid. they note the first 2 points!
LED Solar Garden Lights Are Easy on Spring Budget
LED solar garden lights are a perfect outdoor lighting option for homeowners looking for energy efficiency and to stay on budget. Modern solar lights emit an ambient glow that is a great option for outdoor entertaining. Using several solar lanterns or wall lights around your patio or deck offers a unique lighting arrangement that costs nothing to operate.With less maintenance than traditional lighting sources, solar lights offer a clear advantage.LED bulbs last for close to 200,000 hours of use making them extremely durable and long-lasting. The LED's also run cool and there are no wires or sockets to worry about. Your family can rest easy knowing the yard is a more safe place!Modern solar lighting is becoming increasingly affordable and stylish as new models are introduced and updated regularly. Solar garden lights have a clear ROI as they draw no electricity from the grid. If you are replacing traditional outdoor lighting with LED solar garden lights, they will pay for themselves within their lifetime.Choosing an outdoor lighting scheme can be difficult enough. Installation is often the most difficult aspect of setting up your outdoor sanctuary. LED solar garden lights take this worry away - they simply plug into the ground with a provided stake. Other types of lights are hung on your wall, strung around benches or poles, or placed in your garden to highlight landscaping.Decorating options are endless! Opportunities to customize a beautiful lighting arrangement for your backyard are unlimited. You can choose from stainless steel or copper finishes, globe or lantern styles, or even tall lamp posts or solar string lights! For that truly unique feel, choose accessories like a solar umbrella, garden rock, or solar fence.Adorning your patio, deck, or lawn with LED solar lights adds a festive tone for family and friends. Look for stylish garden lanterns or solar string lights that will keep your guests talking! For the environmentally conscious, know that you are creating demand for renewable energy while increasing the energy efficiency of your home.
China Outdoor 8m60w Led Solar Street Light Top Sale
Mar 19, 2021· Established in 1995. Focus on R&D, Quality control, Sales, Marketing, After sale service For LED lighting products. ABOUT PRODUCTS Manufacturer and exporter of Solar Street Lights, LED Street Light, LED Housing, Solar Battery, Solar Panel, Solar Controller and Solar Home Lighting System. COOPERATION MARKET We had successfully sold our solar jan 16, 2021 we ensure that we deliver qualified and innovative solar garden and street lighting solution to fulfill the energy requirements of all our customers. all in one outdoor led solar street light price list with life po4 battery 50w 80w 120w led lamp 5 years warranty led street lights, solar home power, solar power streetlight ld 110 jiangsu Get a QuoteI broke my lava lamp in my room, i cleaned it up and all but i wanna know if its toxic?? its watery w./ gliter?its not toxic.... by law it can not beBall Python, feeding questions and heating lamp question?I have a 5 month old baby ball python and it is a good idea to feed them on there cage, because they do get aggressive when they sense food, also u should get a UTH(under tank heater) you can them at petsmart, get the zoo med brand, so you don have to keep the light on all night. The light should stay on for 12 hours, and it is best to keep it on during the day. And after it eats leave it alone for about 2-3days. ohh and thumps up on the adoption.Should I take the top off the Lava lamp I just bought?no! that will ruin it. then when it gets hot it will ooze out the topdid this science experiment and it was about putting a cup with ice under a lamp.?Why do you keep asking the same question? How many answer do you want? And apart from the first sentence the previous answer is rubbish and personally I think you messed it up. Do it again but with a different amount of water and ice THEN ask the question again..I am moving my rabbits in my garage for the winter, it is NOT insulated. What type of heat lamp should I buy?I would highly suggest talking with your vet or local feed store. Remember to hide the cords they are tastey and rabits love to chew on them! I can not remember but we used a heat lamp with I want to say a 100 watt soft bulb. We got it from Orschlans or Home Depot but its been awhile. Also, you might want to check and see about vitamens in their water if you do not already use some. Without the real sun providing vits it can limit what they get and they can get very sick. Just call you vet and ask! Good luck!How can I keep a snake warm without the use of a heat lamp?get a heat pad and a thermostat for it, then you can control how hot it gets and it wo not burn your cage. i do not know how much the thermostat would be in a pet store, but you can order online from big apple herp, it's like $15 and definitely worth itWhere to find replacement shade/deflector torchiere lamp?Torchiere ShadesI'm looking for a timer to turn on my lamp in the morning to wake me up.?Hi there! You can go to Target and pick one up. They are called "automatic light timers" and they are in the home improvement section. I would recommend getting a digital timer though, because they are much easier to program. Hope this helps!! :)What is the unit that measure the amount of light that comes out of a lamp?Luminosity Lux Opaque Short Wavelength Glass Prism Ray Model of Light Diffraction Illuminated source Inverse square speed of light You obviously recorded the terms down incorrectly.Would a normal everyday lamp harm or stress my Ryukin out? 2: Electrical safety; the standard aquarium light is usually designed with the possibility of water exposure in mind, the standard desk lamp is not, DO NOT position the light above the tank if there is any risk of it falling in, or it getting wet from splashage, it could be harmful to both you and the fish.
Integrated Solar Street Light Led Outdoor Garden Light New Rural
We are the factory main for solar panels, on-grid and off-grid solar systems, and solar street lights in China since 2014. We have a factory building of 10,000 square meters for the production line for fully automatic assembly of solar panels and a factory building of 2,000 square meters for the assembly of solar systems and solar lights. Designed with an integrated motion sensor, this outdoor solar powered security light can be mounted easily onto the side of a wall or secured to a 2 in. - 3 in. pole. Constructed of rustproof rigid resin and designed with SMARTLOCK technology, this LED Solar Security Light will illuminate up to 150 cycles per night for 60-second intervals when Semi 2 in 1 80W Solar Street Lights 1. Integration design, easy to carry, put solar panel, LED lamp, battery and controller all in one, do not need any cable 2. Rural Garden Outdoor Solar Integrated Energy Lamp 30w Led Street Light , Find Complete Details about Rural Garden Outdoor Solar Integrated Energy Lamp 30w Led Street Light,30w Led Street Light,Solar Led Street Light,Energy Led Street Light from Street Lights Supplier or Manufacturer-Hebei Enjo Light Technology Co., Ltd. * All the key solar lights components such as the battery, charge controllers, solar panel, and led are from the big company.And we sign annual warranty contracts with the suppliers to make sure the material quality from the source. So we strictly comply with the guarantee that we promise to the customer. The battery we used passes the MSDS, UN38.3.The solar cell is Jinco grade A. * All the key solar lights components such as the battery, charge controllers, solar panel, and led are from the big company.And we sign annual warranty contracts with the suppliers to make sure the material quality from the source. So we strictly comply with the guarantee that we promise to the customer. The battery we used passes the MSDS, UN38.3.The solar cell is Jinco grade A. solar powered street lights 12 best solar street lights. best solar powered street lights. well, there is a wide number of solar powered street lights on the market. we would like to introduce you to some popular models that are suitable for your gardens, pathways, and courtyards. so it would be easy for you to find the coolest solar outdoor light to illuminate your outdoor spaces.How much would alchohol cost at a wedding?If you purchase the alchohol yourself around $1200-$1500. If you will spend at the bar $4500 Get married in Las Vegas!!! WWW. SILVERBELLSCHAPEL.COM The Silver Bells Wedding Chapel, is perfect for your Las Vegas Wedding. Just outside of the Las Vegas strip, Located within the Artisan Hotel. The hotel features dim ambience throughout the entire hotel which features a gorgeous indoor chapel and outdoor garden which would be perfect for your Las Vegas Wedding. These two locations are one of the best in Las Vegas. Unlike most chapels in Las Vegas the photos previewed here is what our venue really looks like. No overly hyped editing, to ensure that you get your perfect Las Vegas wedding. Providing you the best Las Vegas wedding is our main goal. We can also customize packages to fit your needs. Our well organized professional staff will help you save time and hassles for preparing for your Las Vegas Wedding. WWW.SILVERBELLSCHAPEL.COMShould chickens be fenced off from outdoor gardens?The day I plant seeds and seedlings, I lock the chickens out of the garden. Otherwise they will scratch it all up looking for bugs, making dirt baths, and ripping apart the seedling's leaves.However, once the plants have some decent size on them I usually let them in for a few hours just before the sun sets. That way they get to go bug hunting for a bit, eat a few leaves here and there, and then put themselves back in the coop before they do much damage.I always seem to have one though, who makes it her life's mission to peck holes in every single piece of red fruit she can find, be it strawberries, tomatoes, or friggin habanero peppers. Actually she will eat the whole habanero, crazy bird.What time of year should you begin planting seeds indoors for outdoor gardens?You should read the package on how long it takes to germinate and be ready for planting. I would say Illinois is about the same for Boston in that the earliest date is around the middle of May. You can then count backwards to see when it's time to start the seeds for the plants you want. You could try giving them some bottom heat and sit back and watch them grow
Let There Be Light - the Hindu
Light is not just about energy. It provides us the means to reveal spaces and volumes and interact with our environment. There is an increasing interest in natural day lighting, a valuable resource available for free every day. The energy used by artificial lighting in buildings is a major part of the energy use in buildings and if this can be reduced, consequently the emissions of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases can be reduced. This can have an important effect in reducing global warming. This will also assist us significantly in the battle to solve our energy crisis. One square foot of a roof glass for sunlight is as good as 6 sq. ft of a window. And a window to the south and west of a building in the southern latitudes of India can mean more light, and more heat, too, for it is on the sun's 'friendly axis'.Daylight can provide a welcome and dynamic contribution to the human experience in buildings and, can impact human performance. Most people appreciate daylight and also enjoy the outside view that windows provide. The therapeutic effect and the importance of access to sunlight is most noticeable when you are denied or deprived of its use.The first and most obvious thing to understand is that daylight is variable: it varies with the season of the year, the time of day, and the weather. A careful study of the plans related to energy-efficient day lighting design will indicate where sufficient daylight is available, and where it will need to be supplemented.A building's passive response to day lighting can enhance comfort and be cost-effective; the savings of course in energy and costs are obvious. The use of proper passive design systems ensures that you invite natural light pleasantly, while keeping heat of your home or workplace.The easiest and cheapest way to get natural light into your home is with windows. Appropriate selection of locally available materials with thermally insulated properties can keep the home cool too, reducing the consumption of energy significantly.There has to be enough light filtering in spaces that are common: corridors, pathways, walkways, basement stairways and such. Selection of colours that enliven walls and ceilings can make a subtle difference to the bounce you get of light in indoor spaces. Not just the design of individual buildings, the municipal rules of the land should set laws for setbacks between buildings. Where there are buildings jostling for space on a crowded street, rights of light have to be defined. It is important therefore to ensure that the profile of the building complies in all respects with the planning laws, and observes the right of the neighbour's light.There are some areas in buildings where daylight can never reach and artificial light will always be required. With technological advancement, at places where there are limitations for use of natural light, solar lights or sky tubes are excellent alternatives for maximizing daylight and the technology of the reflector and reflectance of the tubes makes the amount of oncoming light very usable. In addition, they are much easier to install than a skylight.Natural light is part of our biological needs. Intuitively, we prefer daylight to electric light. Spending at least four hours under the sun is vital for longevity and health, but that is a luxury lost for many urban millions.With properly installed and maintained day lighting systems, natural light can add to quality of health, productivity, and safety of building occupants. Natural light helps maintain good health and is proven to be curative. In office spaces, the pleasant environment created by natural light decreases stress levels for office workers. Productivity increases with improved health of workers; with better productivity comes financial benefits for employers. Students also perform better with natural light. Safety is increased with better lighting conditions. The use of day lighting decreases utility costs and improves the well-being of building occupants. Maximizing its usage will not only help you keep lights off during the day it also saves you money by the minute.The writer is Executive Chairman and Co-founder of BCIL ZED Homes.
Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf
Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ahi need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooeyWhat can you do with dried figs?Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%wat can i do with figs?I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural formwhen is the best time to prune a fig tree?Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be dormant...no further growth or leaf pruductionWhat does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...if i ate dried figs all day?that is a alot of fiber lolEdible unclonable functionsFigure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.
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