Guide to Buy Solar Garden Fence Post Lights in Kemeco


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Return to Haiti Finds Glimmers of Hope
Return to Haiti Finds Glimmers of Hope
CORAIL-CESSELESSE, HAITI—Lourdes Cullen Mondesir owns pitifully little. A few pots, a mattress, two tiny chairs she pinched from a broken elementary school. But as she presides over her world in the desert north of Port-au-Prince, she says she has everything.A small, mint-green, cement-fibreboard house that is hers, hers, hers.“This is like a palace for me,” says the 47-year-old nurse as she watches her son, 14, pedal his bike across a dusty soccer pitch from her porch. “We don't know the people who contributed money for these shelters. Strangers gave me this gift. It's marvelous. We pray for them all the time. For me, it's been a grace.”A grace. You don't hear that often in Haiti in general, and particularly not about Corail, the country's first planned resettlement following la catastrophe.Since the first of 8,000 earthquake refugees were moved a year ago from their tents in an overcrowded golf course in the city to new tents on a flood plain 14 kilometres away, this has been the favoured whipping dog of all that's wrong with Haiti's reconstruction: the land was procured through a dirty deal that lined the pockets of a government official; the promised nearby factory never materialized with its promised jobs; the tents were exposed during hurricane season without the shelter of a single tree ... Critics called it the country's next Cité Soleil — a dangerous slum in the making.And yet, when I dropped in unannounced on a recent Sunday, I was greeted by one happy person after another, out front of one happy pastel-coloured house after another, all like a Disney dream. Within a year, World Vision International had replaced all of those miserable tents.In their place were all these “transitional shelters” designed to last 10 years, at $4,500 a pop. Barbers give haircuts in their miniature salons. Women sell soap and pasta from their tidy porches. As if on cue, members of a karate club decked out in their white gi uniforms unroll a large tarp to demonstrate their high kicks before a growing crowd.“We planted an olive pit three months ago,” Roldy Magloire says, wading through sugar cane and squash plants to grip the trunk of an already lush olive tree. He looks over at his wife, holding their new baby girl on her lap. “It's much better here.” Five schools will open here in October, three of them free. The health clinic run by Plan International is still open. The United Methodists handed out free solar lights to every household this week. “This is nice; this is amazing,” my translator repeats as we walk down the tidy footpaths between houses. “I didn't know about this place. I have to tell my friends.”And so I'm telling you: not everything has gone to pot in Haiti since the earthquake. Yes, the problems are still daunting, with emergency funding and patience running out, and almost 600,000 people still living in muddy patches of desperation.But when I returned to the devastated island nation this month, for the first time since a January visit that had left me overwhelmed with the degree of Haitians' continuing frustration and misery, I found reasons to hope. It was a death blow to an already terminally ill patient. Before Jan. 12, three in four Haitians made less than $2 a day, 40 per cent of the population had never stepped into a school and one in three children were so malnourished their stomachs were distended and their hair turned orange. Once the dead had been buried, however, most locals began to see the earthquake as a tragic springboard that — given the globe's attention and money — could finally bounce the country into the First World. “Build Back Better” became the country's slogan, and in those few tender months after the earthquake, there was a sense of optimism on the streets of the broken capital. But cynicism and anger quickly took root. The blame game became a national sport. Why were more than 800,000 people still sleeping under tarps on highway medians and in parks a year after the earthquake? Why was the money going to emergency assistance rather than long-term reconstruction?The foreign aid workers blamed the government for not taking the lead. The weakened Haitian government blamed international donors for not providing it with the money needed to take charge. Many Haitians on the streets blamed the blanc contractors riding to meetings in shiny white trucks, while the only jobs open to them were throwing rubble into open trucks for $6 a day. Burning out, the blancs grew wary of the relentless victim mentality. “We figure 40 per cent of the people we provide services to are fake,” one aid worker confided. “But we don't know which ones. I feel like we're building a U.S.-style Indian reservation here, creating a community of dependent people.”Meanwhile, life in the camps was deteriorating. Women like 53-year-old Rosemary Orelien urinated in plastic bags at night, too frightened of rapists to venture outside. They bought food on credit, without hope of ever repaying it. And they prayed. It was a heartbreaking mess. Where was the rubble?According to the UN, 45 per cent has been cleared but I saw only three piles in a week. Whole broken buildings were gone, metal fences surrounding their empty footprints. Camps like the squalid Place St. Pierre looked thinner. Rows of shelters were missing, their owners having paid $500 each to find a new place. According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of people living in tent settlements has been cut by two-thirds, many having returned to damaged homes. In the ravine behind my guest house, a new, $1.5-million rehab clinic for the injured and disabled is rising quickly, one wheelbarrow of concrete at a time. It is owned by Healing Hands for Haiti, the country's leading rehabilitation aid agency. The director, Al Ingersoll, proudly points out where the wheelchair-accessible showers will be — a first for Haiti. That's not the only new medical building going up. I visited the new Médecins Sans Frontières maternity hospital, which opened last March a few blocks away in the Delmas area. It is a thing to behold — gleaming ceramic floors, rows of premature babies in functioning incubators, their tired mothers in beds without a trace of rust on them. And service here is not just good and respectful, it is free — unheard of in the city before the earthquake, even at the decrepit public hospitals. An hour and a half north of the city in Mirabelais, the country's biggest hospital is rising from the rice paddies. Once completed next year, the 320-bed teaching facility will have six operating rooms, a neonatal intensive care unit and a rooftop covered in solar panels. Its owner, U.S.-based agency Partners In Health, already has a track record in the country for providing free, modern health care to the poor, and this will continue for at least 10 years. “We believe the root cause of disease is poverty,” says Cate Oswald, Partners In Health's lead program manager in Haiti.Partners has started training local farmers to raise tilapia. Those fish will then be sold to the hospital for patient meals. The buildings aren't all being erected by foreign aid groups. I stopped in at Université Quisqueya, where 15 people died trapped under rubble. Before the earthquake, this was the country's most modern university — with amphitheatres, a library and a museum. After the earthquake, it was a jumble of rubble atop a pile of sand. The last time I visited, students were studying in what looked like a bomb shelter. When they start classes on Monday, it will be in graceful, aquamarine-coloured, solar-powered buildings, designed by in-house architectural students. The president, Jacky Lumarque, leads me outside to watch a ragged crew of workers haul buckets of concrete up ladders to the next level of the soon-to-be medical school. His administration building is almost finished next door. Donors foot the bill of the aquamarine buildings, but not these, he says. So, he took out a $2 million loan. “We're doing things by ourselves,” he says. “We are not expecting any real support from the government or international donors. I don't know where we can go, but we're on our way.”He won't take me to certain sections this time — they are too dangerous. A UN soldier was shot there recently. The doctor who runs the little medical clinic here was robbed at gunpoint. A survey shows 10 per cent of women have experienced some kind of sexual violence.Of the dozen non-government agencies that once worked here — or promised to help — only two are left. And the Red Cross is planning to pull out come January, Pierre says. The little school funded by generous Star readers has shut down. Everyone with the option to live elsewhere has fled. The desperate, like Rosemary Orelien, are left. Since my last visit her husband, Lucien, died in the night. She didn't have $50 to pay an ambulance to take him to the morgue. So his body stayed here, until neighbours complained of the stench and, finally, cobbled together the cash needed to send him away. “I'd like to leave,” she says quietly. “But I don't have the means.”What does a new university mean to Orelien? Or a new maternity hospital? Or even the new pastel houses far away in Corail?There is momentum in this country, but without strong leadership stitching these new initiatives together into a coherent plan, they will remain nothing more than sporadic gems for the lucky few. What will happen next? The country continues to hold its breath. First there was the pause before a national election, followed by the election and then another one. Finally, half a year later, the president was sworn in, but no government. Michel “Sweet Mickey” Martelly is on his third choice for prime minister, hoping this time his opponents in parliament will agree. Critics decry his bullheadedness. Supporters admire his guts.His team pushes on, launching a program to empty out six of the remaining camps. It aims to move 5,000 families back into homes in their former neighbourhoods — only one-twentieth of the tent dwellers, but a start, and aid agencies are following suit.He's slapped a tax on long-distance cellphone calls and money transfers, pooling resources for his ambitious plan to enrol every Haitian child in primary school for free by the end of his five-year term. He's started with 141,000 rural students who start school in October. Even some cynics, like nursing school founder Gilberte Salomon, are impressed. A year ago, she said she had no hope for her country. Now, she is rebuilding her school.“Martelly is a motor to get things started,” she says.Also on board is Michaëlle Jean, Canada's former governor general, now UNESCO's special representative in Haiti. UNESCO is spending $4 million to train teachers, build the national curriculum and start collecting school statistics for Martelly's “Education for All” plan, Jean tells me. The money comes from Canada.I jumped into her car en route to the airport, after she'd spent a week touring the country, from the Martissant slum to the citadel in Cap-Haitian.She had met with the president to talk about education.“It's the legacy he wants to leave for Haiti,” she says. “It goes beyond himself. He's taking it very seriously and he knows he has five years to make it happen.”She, too, was leaving the country with a feeling of hope.“It's a good sign,” she says. “I hope I won't be proven wrong.”
Craft an Enchanted Garden with Solar Landscape Lighting
Imagine walking through lustrous greenery and discovers various wonders within.Do these beautiful scenery in enchanted stories of a movie make you feel with envy?If it does, then you should keep a close attention in the few next paragraphs.Every household has different style of garden that truly reflects the taste and creativity of the homeowner.If the garden looks dull and lackluster, the first impression that come to people's mind is the image of the homeowner been unfriendly and somber.People will think negatively whenever they pass by this garden.If you have a choice, won't you think it's better to craft your unique style in your gardens?One of the styles that I would like introduce is the theme of an enchanted garden with the help of various type of Solar Landscape Lighting.There are 3 areas that will create a perfect landscape for an enchanted garden, i.e. Main Entrance, Pathway, Water feature, Enchanted corner and Doorway.Let's start from the main entrance. Here you can spread beautiful Flower Solar String Lights such as daisy flowers on top and front of your fence.They can be easily disguised as real flowers under the sun and really brighten your main entrance.At night, these flower light up the main entrance brilliantly with LED lights.Next add a solar address stone to display the house number.Next we work on the water feature.Erect a water fountain with solar water pump and add different colored floating solar lights to the water surface.Add some spice to your water feature by erecting a solar lighthouse next to the fountain.Standing at the height of above 1m, its fiberglass wall is a truly eye-catching piece of structure that will shine an orange glow at night on the water fountain.Along the pathway set up some Rome Solar Lights to give the feeling of an ancient trail waiting for people to discover.They can really make the pathway look like off the beaten track.On an empty land exposed to strong sunlight, it is best to set up an enchanted corner that can be filled with little wonders. Place a white round garden table and chair here to enjoy reading book or light snack in the enchanted atmosphere.Let a Solar Lantern Lights illuminate the table top at night. Bring in the little wonders into this corner by placing little angels and dwarfs using fairy solar lights and gnome solar lights.Their appearance easily triggers the image of the enchanted characters in a movie full of fantasy.At night, these little wonders beam their spot light across each other creating a dazzling display of light.At the doorway, animal solar lights such as Dalmatian dogs or any other pet dog hold a solar lantern lights and wait patiently for your arrival.Dogs are man's best friend and they can make you feel ease at home after returning from hard day work. Most importantly they light up the door and safely lead you to your house.Nowadays Solar Lights have become a definition of style more than just to replace electric lights for cost saving.With more modern designs built around different type of solar lights, you can craft different theme of landscape lighting that suit your personality and taste. So start exploring the option offered by the large variety of solar landscape lighting.
Are There Solar Lights That Can Be Put Inside Existing Lamps?
You could maybe buy some cheap solar lamps, and tear them apart to use guts to replace your existing lamps, but my guess is you are going to have trouble mounting the solar panels somewhere that does not look goofy. If you mount them away from the lamp itself, then you are going to have to run wiring (and as you said, that was not done well and has been disconnected). If you are willing to run new wiring, then you can definitely use low voltage LED bulbs, where you just need low voltage cable that goes back to a transformer somewhere (or battery solar panel) - this is much easier and safer to install than high voltage cable (where you pretty much need to run it in a conduit anywhere underground).1. Is the content of fluorescent lamps poisonous?they are all 'natural' products ............if handled properly, that is.But, the 'chalk dust' includes a blend of phosphor, so that when the uv light hits it, the uv light gets converted to visible light.One additional element , is the vapour of mercury, that enables the arc stream to happen.Since it is a vapour, it dissipaters in air fairly quickly. I would not breathe the vapour, but there are exposure limits depending on your region.If you subscribe to the concept that anything over 0 is too much, then use incandescent light bulbs.yes, there is a little in each bulb.far less than there was in the 1920s2. What color should I paint my room?attempt vacationing the library or bookstores(my well-known) to benefit the abode adorning books and magazines to get ideals. Or attempt interpreting the essential colorings on your needed or present day furniture and adorning accents alongside with lamps, pictures, vases, bookshelves, and mattress covers. optimistically you will come across a colour which will circulate with all those products. If nonetheless caught, circulate to Sherwin Williams, abode Depot or Lowes or any paint broking that has quite a few paint pattern enjoying cards, and take each and all the paint pattern enjoying cards that seize your fancy. Take turns taping them on your wall and notice the form you like those colorings in the process the day and night. as quickly as you narrowed down the strategies, circulate decrease back and notice in case you may get those pattern paints in the two or 3 ouncesjars and paint a pattern board (white poster board or white cardboard field from food market) to work out a bigger pattern that could be useful you are making an exceedingly final determination. desire this helps.3. What Size of Toggle Switch do I Use for Fog-Lamps?Why is the cop a douche bag for telling you your fog lamps are too surprising? Do you get called a douche bag for doing all your job? I guess you get called one besides, it quite is why you are bitter. in the event that they are too surprising, they seem to be a danger. in case you purchased a cost ticket for that, which I quite doubt, i will guess it became greater on your approach. i wish you save that approach for the decide, good good fortune in court docket. **you are this form of huge guy to %. on hopeful. She's no longer the sissy whining some non-cost ticket.** *nicely, a minimum of I taught you to spell "douche". lol. you are very relaxing. you are so labored up! you may supply it yet no longer take it curiously. good good fortune. :o) *4. Can anyone help me install Fog Lamps in my 1992 Dodge Stealth?you start by mounting them on the out side,where the cables are located ,there's a spot there that they will mount in,then you,ll need a switch then you,go inside and make sure there's a harness behind where the switch is,or the switch will be if so connect it there,and then look for a blank spot in the fuse panel for a fuse to control the lights,there may also be a relay on the outside for then if so all you will have will be a pig tail for the relay,you,ll have to locate a relay and use it ,there's a lot of work to doing this,if your not real good with wiring id suggest you let a shop do this,wiring those up wrong can get your car burned up,and there more to adding those on than just mounting them,there's a lot that i cant explain here,and there no pages or details i can send that will can get a shop to wire them after you have installed them,good luck on it
How to Make the Waterproof for Outdoor Solar Lights?
Recently, it is the period when the autumn is slowly turning to the winter, and the amount of rainwater is obviously increased. When using outdoor solar lights, it is necessary to ensure that the waterproof performance is good. If the outdoor solar lights is not waterproof, the outdoor solar lights will not be bright and a short circuit will occur. Heavy rain enters the interior of the outdoor solar lights head, corroding the internal wires, making the wires contact with the lamp post, thus affecting people's safety. Therefore, it is necessary to do waterproof work of solar powered outdoor lights. The solar powered outdoor lights is mainly composed of a street lamp pole and an LED street lamp lamp head. The solar powered outdoor lights pole is generally made of an overall hot-dip galvanizing spray treatment, and does not seep water. Solar powered outdoor lights manufacturers need to pay attention to the waterproofing of best outdoor solar lights heads. Only the waterproof work of the lamp heads can ensure the stability and safety of best outdoor solar lights at night. The following small series will tell you how to do the waterproof work of best outdoor solar lights.1. The design of the best outdoor solar lights shell can not be recessed. Try to use the upper wire through hole style, which is beneficial to the rapid evaporation of water from the solar system led light housing. 2. Solar system led light chip, lens should consider their waterproof performance, to achieve IP65 level. The rear cover of the lamp head, the back cover of the power supply box, and the threading hole in the power supply box are respectively designed with waterproof sealing strips and waterproof plugs with good sealing performance.3. Need to do the aging test of LED street lamp head. The waterproof strip at the internal connection of the LED street lamp has a service life, and the sealing may be lowered at a joint after several years. Therefore, solar system led light manufacturers should do aging inspection after production to test their waterproof performance and ensure good waterproof performance for at least 5 years.The above are three ways to do waterproof work on solar system led light. Of course, when you buy led street light solar system, do not choose the products produced by small workshops. Because the production equipment of small workshops is small and the process is poor, most led street light solar system are not good for waterproof work. It must be done from regular LED street lamp manufacturers. Buy, it is best to remind everyone not to buy LED street lights in incredibly cheap!Why would planets of the solar system be spheres and the earth be flat?Exactly! It would make no sensePlausible reason to leave the Solar System? [closed]In the near future, probably nothing. In medium term future, there is a number of possibilities.Today, building a starship like that is simply impossible. But in the near future, when we would be able to sort out all technical hurdles of sending humans to Mars, a giant interstellar spaceship will become a theoretical possibility. However, there would still be a number of issues that would make a success of such project highly unlikely.So, I would think that even under the best conditions, building such ship in the next 50 years is impossible. Of course we can try, but the project would have a very low chance of success. I can not think of any realistic calamity that would affect entire Solar system and give us enough notice to build this spaceship.However, looking further forward, all of the issues in the list above can be eliminated or somehow mitigated. New types of engines can be built, thermonuclear energy become reality, deep space experience would turn into confidence in spaceship's long term durability, our telescopes will find very Earthlike planets and new technologies like space elevator would make building spaceships in orbit very cheap. If the complexity of this project is reduced from the "Tower of Babel" to "Apollo" level, then we can find a number of possible reasons to complete it - from below-extinction level catastrophes to simple curiosityHow would astrology work in a different solar system?Your basic hypothesis is flawed: astrology is not real and does not work in our own Solar System
How to Choose Solar Lights Outdoor
Neither need of charging the solar light with electricity, nor installing the bulbs as other ordinary light fixtures as well, solar lights is an energy-saving and wallet-friendly choice to improve your life. utdoor solar lights are able to withstand all sorts of weather since the solar cells are made of higher technology that have longer lifetime than other lights. Exactly, most solar lights outdoor on the market can last up to 10-25 years. Solar outdoor lights are powered by solar energy which is renewable and inexhaustible, so they absorb the sunlight during the daylight and provide illumination at night for you. Thus, installing solar lights as your outdoor lights like , yard lights etc. is another way to protect environment. As an energy-saving and eco-friendly lighting item, solar light is another popular new-type product following the prevail of solar heaters. The concept of low-carbon lighting is known today by most people, but few people actually know about the solar lights. So next, the great advantages of solar lights will be listed below to show you how solar lights become so powerful.Equipped with rechargeable solar panel, outdoor solar lights sustainably convert the solar energy to electricity without producing any pollution, which perfectly do help to prevent global warming caused by harmful pollutants. Also, outdoor solar lights have no radiation problems during using. These two aspects are in full accord with the concept of green environmental protection.Although the upfront investment of solar lamps is slightly costly, the solar lighting system requires little maintenance but occasional check-ups and cleaning throughout the year to ensure the longevity of the solar lights.Outdoor solar lights have various types with different appearances, functions, applicable occasions, sizes and more. For instance, the solar lights from LOHAS LED all are a kind of , which perfectly free your hand while saving your electricity bill. Therefore, they can be used as general lighting lamps, signal lights, pathway lights, landscape lights, marker lights, street lights, insect-killing lights, torch lights, flashlights, solar yard lights, and any other lights for your patio, hallway, garden, fence, street.1. My solar light not working, I messed up with it please help?I doubt if the manufacturer's warranty would cover the damage you caused. As a firm believer in the "Owner's Manifesto", I've voided the warranties on 100's of 1000's of dollars worth of equipment by making modifications that suited my needs. On rare occasions I was not successful and those became "educational experiences". If you do not know what you did wrong, take it apart and try to figure out how it once worked. Then go buy a new one. Don2. How can I use solar to light up my garden?No hidden,no shade and then you will have a wonderful light to your garden3. Consider a cosmic sail-boat moving under the influence of the pressure of sun-light.....?A comment on this point "How do those light-pressure forces compare with the gravitational pull of the Sun?" which was addressed by the two posters who replied. This is not so relevant, because you do not need the pressure form solar light to stay in orbit around the Sun. You can have some satellite that is in orbit around the Sun. Then that satellite can unfold a big solar sail. This sail makes an angle of, say, 45 w.r.t. the line satellite-Sun. Then the pressure from the sunlight will exert a force in the tangential direction as well as in the radial direction. Now, the force exerted in the radial direction looks important but it is not . If the force exerted by the solar light is less than the force exerted by gravity, then this force plus the force of gravity behaves similarly to what the force of gravity would be if the mass of the Sun were bit less. Instead, the tangential component of the force is much more important. This increases the orbital velocity and the satellite then moves away from the Sun as a result. Since this effect persists at all distances from the Sun, what happens is that the satellite gets pushed away from the sun further and further without limit.4. Canu200b I make a solar light on my own?Yes. All you need is a panel and an led bulb and a resistor. As long as there is sun this will lightup. You can improve this with battery daylight sensor etc.
Solar Street Light All in One Street Light Made By
products & solutions let the green energy illuminate the future. renewable energy; stand-by energy; products; solar pv modules; grid-tied solar pv systems; new solar lamp integrative led light solar street lamp and outdoor lighting; solar system for telecom equipment; solar system for oil & gas sector; explore more. products; dc-dc converter; ac ups systems; dc rectifierI have a sodium vapor lamp on an outdoor light and it goes out when the door is shut is this a bulb problem?Probably a switch or loose connection problem, the arc should not extinguish when shakenHow does an outdoor light sensitive lamp post work and how do you troubleshoot one that flickers on and off?Same as previous answer or the sensor itself could be bad as well2 OutDoor Light Wiring Questions Wire coming thru wall to outside has 2 white wires. New fixture has 3 wires?you actually need a volt meter to test between either wire and the earth on the outside of your home...the one that reads 120 volts is the hot line mark this one with a black marker or wrap black tape around it....then hook black to black and connect the bare ground wire to the box the lights mount on .I just installed at 13 watt Compact Floresent Outdoor light, how long will bulb last.?Fluorescents do not like to go on and off allot. at the end of the bulb is a filament just like on an incandescent that ionizes the mercury in the bulb. Leaving a fluorescent on will make it last longer. generally, these small screw in fluorescent last 8 - 10 times longerLinking nighttime outdoor lighting attributes to pedestrians' feeling of safety: An interactive survey approachCitation: Portnov BA, Saad R, Trop T, Kliger D, Svechkina A (2020) Linking nighttime outdoor lighting attributes to pedestrians' feeling of safety: An interactive survey approach. PLoS ONE 15(11): e0242172. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The study was founded by the Israel Science Foundation, which, along with the authors, holds explicit rights over the data collected. As the data used in the analysis contains information on individuals, as well exact coordinates of the locations in which the assessments were performed, the information is sensitive and cannot be shared without the Foundation's consent. However, other researchers may send requests for a de-identified data set directly to the Israel Science Foundation (). Funding: This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant number 400/18). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Public space lighting (PSL) is an important component of the urban environment and has a major contribution to the pedestrians' overall feeling of safety (FoS) and comfort after natural dark -. Effectively, PSL is characterized by several attributes-illuminance, light color temperature, uniformity and glare ,-each of which may influence FoS, as well as energy consumption -, and human health , . PSL is currently designed according to international, national or local standards, such as EN 13201 . However, since the association between the above-mentioned lighting attributes and pedestrians' FoS has not been sufficiently studied , , it is not clear enough how well do the abovementioned standards, albeit technically efficient, contribute to FoS. Moreover, human perceptions of PSL attributes may be influenced by socio-demographic characteristics and may vary according to individual, locational, environmental and temporal circumstances. Therefore, an empirical model that links lighting attributes to FoS and considers various contextual factors is currently lacking. The present study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by developing a PSL-FoS model that links illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare values with FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. Such a model may help to adapt PSL to various settings affecting FoS, and thus may contribute to increased urban residents' satisfaction and wellbeing, while reducing health and ecological risks, and increasing energy efficiency. Several studies have looked into the factors affecting the perceived quality of nighttime illumination by pedestrians , 13-. However, most of these studies were performed in laboratory conditions, which cannot realistically reflect the complexity of outdoor environmental factors (e.g., time, weather, vegetation density and terrain), thus potentially causing biases in the information collected. Studies focusing on outdoor lighting constitute a distinct strand of research , 12, 25, , but they are relatively scarce and entail various limitations. Most of these studies are based on "self-report" questionnaires, which are subjects to various biases and limitations, such as inefficient management of information on measurement time and location during the assessments . Using "paper & pencil" technique to record PSL assessments outdoor after-dark may also pose difficulties, especially to the elderly and visually impaired . Consequently, some respondents may prefer to record their assessments later on, in better visual conditions, which may introduce uncontrolled errors, resulting from memory limitations . Another bias may occur due to insufficient guidance to find the exact location of the designated assessment points. A significant bias may also result from having company during the assessment, such as in the studies of Kelly et al. and Wu , where observers were sent to perform FoS assessments in couples or accompanied by research assistants. In a recent study, Fotios & Johansson examined how pedestrians appraise others' intentions in different outdoor settings. The researchers conclude that as long as a person can identify other pedestrians' faces, PSL is sufficient. Furthermore, the study in question was performed in a simulated built environment, and involved a relatively small number of subjects, which limits its generality. To sum up, we should remark that previous studies that explored potential associations between artificial lighting and FoS have had several limitations. First and foremost, most of such studies were carried out in laboratory conditions . Second, most of them used "paper & pencil" self-administered questionnaires, which entail well-known drawbacks, such as inefficient management of important information in a timely manner . Third, most previous studies were based on a relatively small number of participants , which substantially limits their generality. Finally, none of the studies carried out to date attempted to link different PSL attributes (especially light color temperature) with FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. The study, which results are described in the rest of this paper, attempts to address these limitations by exploring how the abovementioned PSL attributes-illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare-affect pedestrians' FoS in different contextual settings. The multivariate analysis of the recorded data revealed several important findings. First, it was found that locational, socio-demographic, temporal and environmental factors have a significant effect on FoS. Therefore, universal lighting standards cannot be suitable to maintain the desired FoS in all urban areas. The analysis also shows that the minimal levels of illumination required for achieving the same level of FoS differ across cities, being higher in the inland arid city of Beersheba in compare to the coastal cities of Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This finding reconfirms results reported by Svechkina et al , which showed that residents of coastal areas, with often clouded skies and denser vegetation, may be satisfied with lower illumination intensity, in compare to residents of inland arid areas, characterized by stronger daytime lights and less light-obscuring vegetation. Another interesting result stemming from the analysis is that lights perceived as warm tend to generate a better FoS than colder lights, given the same level of illumination. This finding may guide future illumination polices aimed at reducing unnecessary energy waste and preserving a cleaner urban environment. Generally, our findings are in line with the results of Rahm , who demonstrates that PSL, along with individual and environmental factors, have a significant impact on pedestrians' FoS. Nevertheless, the results of the current study are novel in several respects. First and foremost, improving pedestrians' FoS can be reached either by switching the light color temperature from cold to warm, or, alternatively, by increasing illumination. The former approach is less energy consuming and may result in substantial economic and environmental benefits. Second, locational factors (such as different cities and neighborhoods), as well as temporal factors (such as hour of the evening and month of the measurements), which were not assessed in previous studies, were found in the present study to have a statistically significant effect on FoS. It is important to note that in this study, the predicted FoS was linked to assessed PSL attributes, while, alternatively, the level of FoS could potentially be linked to instrumental measurements. Although both approaches-that is, individual assessments vs. instrumental measurements of PSL attributes-have their own merits, in the present study, we preferred to use the former assessment type. Our main reasoning is that people effectively link FoS to their assessment of lighting attributes, not to instrumental measurements, which they are unable to perform. Lastly, we note that this study uses the standard ordered logistic model, which, at least in theory, may lead to erroneous conclusions that some explanatory variables are less significant than they actually are (false negative conclusions). However, since we have found significant effects, the issue is not major and the identified significance levels we have found may be viewed as a lower bound of the true significance. Future studies may consider the use of generalized ordered logistic models -, to reduce this concern. An explanatory model linking FoS with different PSL attributes, along with controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors, is estimated and reported in this study. To estimate this model, 380 observers were asked to assess PSL attributes in different urban settings during different hours of the evening, as well as to evaluate their perception of FoS associated herewith. For this purpose, a specially designed cellular phone application, CityLightsTM, which represents a novel interactive real-time methodological approach, was designed and employed. This app provides an efficient alternative to the "paper & pencil" questionnaires, commonly used to record observations made during an outdoor experience. Based on cloud technology and GPS, the app enables pre-authorized observers to record their assessments along with temporal and geographic information, while preventing observers from deviating too far from pre-determined reporting points. The app also prevents the same observer to enter the same assessment point more than once, and blocks the use of the app before the natural dark or by unauthorized people. In this manner, the app ensures the accuracy and integrity of assessments. The present study is the second in a series of planned studies, carried as part of a large-scale research project, funded by the Israel Science Foundation. The project aims to model the perceived quality of PSL in urban areas by using an interactive user-oriented approach. The first paper in this sequence aimed to identify only the level of illumination required by pedestrians to feel safe while walking through the streets at night. Concurrently, the present study links different PSL attributes (illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare) to FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. The study was carried out in three large cities in Israel-Tel Aviv-Yafo, Haifa and Beersheba,-along pre-defined routes in 10 different neighborhoods (three-to-four neighborhoods in each city). A representative sample of participants used the CityLightsTM app to report their assessments from 257 pre-designated points, yielding altogether 25,940 individual valid records, which account for different PSL attributes. The results of this study hold a potential for improving pedestrians' FoS through better design of PSL by soliciting interactive responses from local residents and adjusting PSL attributes to their needs. Such a user-oriented approach allows to receive real-time feedback and may thus elevate PSL systems to a new level of interactivity and intelligence. Findings of the study may also guide future PSL polices aiming at increasing energy efficiency and reducing health risks to humans and ecosystems. This goal can be achieved by adjusting not only illumination intensity, but also light color temperature, to the desired levels of FoS, concomitant with desired goals. By venue of this, the results presented in this paper can be of interest for urban planners, environmental law enforcement authorities and decision-makers in local municipalities. In particular, following the results presented in this paper, PSL design for desired FoS can enable temporal and locational variations of illumination intensity and light color temperature and their locational variation, to reflect population makeup and building patterns in different neighborhoods and in different cities, thus helping to achieve a desired level of FoS. In particular, study results may encourage PSL designers to use warmer light, which can generate higher FoS for the same level of illumination. Applying just this strategy may decrease PSL-associated costs, in compare to those generated by the commonly used cold lights. Furthermore, as warmer lights are associated with higher FoS, using such lights may compensate for a reasonable reduction in required illuminance, without compromising FoS. The model estimated and reported in this paper can help to estimate this possible tradeoff between required illumination level and light color temperature for any desired level of FoS. The study findings may guide decision-makers towards improving new urban design and street retrofit projects. For instance, according to our findings, to achieve acceptable FoS levels, street lighting (SL) designers should focus on three main factors-illuminance, uniformity and light color temperature. In doing so, SL designers should keep in mind that, according to the study findings, urban residents appear to prefer warmer lights, which make them feel safer, in compare to cooler (i.e., bluer) lights. It is also important to keep in mind, that illumination levels should reflect contextual settings, considering that residents of cities, in which daytime radiance levels are high, may require more nighttime illumination to feel sufficiently safe after natural dark. As the results of the present study also indicates, in designing PSL installations, planners should account for the demographics of potential users, such as age and gender, which were found in this study, along with the environmental characteristics of different urban settings, which appear to significantly affect FoS perceptions. Temporal factors should also be taken into account. For instance, PSL level should be designed to enable increased intensity in illumination or changing light color temperature towards warm after 22:00, in order to maintain the same level of FoS. Thus, the study may contribute to optimizing PSL standards, which are presently mostly geared towards road traffic rather than to pedestrians' needs. Several interesting topics, which were beyond the scope of the present article, can be addressed in future studies. Two of them hold promising potential to quantify energy savings: the relation between FoS assessments and PSL instrumental measurements, and the potential linkage between illumination intensity and color temperature. Future studies may also increase the FoS-PSL model's validity and credibility by using means, such as a larger number of observers in each neighborhood, additional neighborhoods in each city, additional cities, more diverse urban settings, and various socio-demographic and cultural conditions. Another important future direction for scholarly enquiry is interactions between different FoS predictors, such as e.g., age and gender, and their combined effects of FoS.
Outdoor Solar Lights - Powerful, Economic and Eco-Friendly Lighting
It brings a sense of fulfillment and satisfaction when one steps to the garden and look to discover a wonderful glowing illumination in the darkness of the night. Depending on the model you chose, outdoor solar lights can provide enough lighting to fit your needs. Since the latest solar powered lights have ultra bright LEDs (light emitting diodes) that produce a powerful enough illumination, you can very well and clearly identify the different features in your back yard.There are many advantages of using solar powered lights. They are easy to install and will not require you to hire an electrician or to lay electrical wires. From the fact that solar powered lights utilize energy from the sun and operate on low voltage, they can be considered safe. Outdoor solar lights can be used in places that present danger when walking in the dark. Not only they are safe, they also create a beautiful ambiance at night.The most interesting feature found on almost all solar powered lights, is the ability to operate automatically. There is no need to switch them on or off. What make this possible is that outdoor solar lights use a light sensor also called photocell. When darkness comes, they are able to switch themselves on, and when the sun start to shine in the early morning, they switch off.Each solar garden light has its own solar panel and rechargeable battery set. It is very important to make sure that they are installed at places where there is enough sunlight during the day so that enough energy can be tapped by the solar panel for storage in the rechargeable batteries. This will make sure that your solar powered lights can run through out the night without going off.You can find outdoor solar lights for different uses. The most common ones are solar garden lights, solar path lights, solar lanterns and other decorative solar powered lights. Whatever your choice is, solar lights will definitely add a beautiful atmosphere to your garden every night.
Broke One of My Neighbors Outdoor Garden Lights, How Do I Cover It Up?
Confess, you will at least get points for being honest rather than for being a little weasel. Face facts, you are not that bright. Odds are you will miss some detail and get caught. Look at the way you are trying to blame them for you breaking their light with your poor ball handling skills.1. How do I keep rabbits from chewing electrical cords on my garden lights?Find something that they do not like of a kind of smell they do not like and put it around the places you do not want them to get near2. Storing energy from small wind generator to power led garden lightsA deep cycle battery is what you want. A standard car battery really is not designed to charge and discharge where a deep cycle is made to do that so it will have a longer usable life3. Would it be possible to hack solar garden lights into one big PV panel?a garden light uses one LED, or about 30mw of power. you would need 2000 of these to power just one 60 watt light bulb. not practical or cheap. you would be better served to get a single 60 watt panel. a clothes dryer uses a tremendous amount of power, you should hang the clothes out on a line to dry in the sunshine instead4. How do solar garden lights work?You are correct. You also should be aware that a crappy soldering job is a sign it is a crappy light5. The Best Outdoor Speakers for Delivering Premium Sound at Your Next PartyAny entertainer knows that no alfresco soire is complete without some accompanying tunes. Whether it's your favorite '50s crooner or a little upbeat jazz, music is one of the quickest and easiest ways to create ambiance at any party or gathering. Suffice to say, a good set of outdoor speakers is a must. As its moniker implies, this audio equipment is designed to function outside. This means the speakers are weatherproof and built to withstand the elements to deliver music in rain, hail or shine. Furthermore, they pack enough power to produce rich, superior sound in open-air environments. When it comes to aesthetics, outdoor speakers run the gamut from the classic cube with honeycomb grill to clever designs that double as lanterns. It all comes down to what will work best in your particular exterior space. Here, we've selected four of the best sets of outdoor speakers to get you grooving in no time. Robb Report stands for luxury without compromise, and is synonymous around the world with the best of the best. For over 40 years, our magazine has helped discerning readers find products that meet those exacting standards. We are proud to continue that tradition by recommending the very best cookware, technology, home goods and other life essentials to meet your needs. With a deceptively simple lantern-like exterior, Pohopa's multipurpose outdoor speakers actually double as garden lights. The two speakers each deliver 10 watts and can be paired together for powerful and rich surround sound. They are also fitted with built-in LED lights that will brighten up any outdoor space, literally. Since the speakers are compatible with Bluetooth, you can control them via your phone while you are up to 33 feet away. Each speaker also packs a rechargeable lithium battery which means you need not worry about pesky wires. Naturally, they are also water and dustproof. Buy: Pohopa Outdoor Speakers Like the top pick on our list, Anerimst's outdoor speaker doubles as a light and delivers far more than superior stereo sound. In fact, the three-in-one design can be used as a table lantern, hanging lamp or tiki torch depending on which kind of atmosphere you wish to create. The LED even creates warm yellow light that flickers like a real flame. The wireless speaker delivers five watts for clear and crisp sound. It also features a rechargeable battery that offers 18 hours of playtime. To top it off, this speaker can connect to smartphones, tablet or computers and is also weatherproof for year-round enjoyment. Buy: Anerimst Outdoor Speaker Dual Electronics's high-performance speakers are the most powerful on our list. Boasting 100 watts of peak power, the three-way design promises to turn any outdoor space into "auditory nirvana." While they are a little bulkier than, say, Polk's compact speakers, you will have no issue incorporating them into your patio, backyard or terrace. Built to weather any season, the speakers are coated with a UV-resistant resin and are also waterproof. For the best acoustic experience, pair the speakers with a matching Bluetooth amplifier. Buy: Dual Electronics Outdoor Speakers Click here to read the full article.
7 Quick Tips for Solar Park Lights
In places where the environment needs to be preserved or parks there is a need for a natural lighting system when illumination is required at night. The use of solar park lights, in this case, eliminates trenching, power cabling, and any other works that may interfere with the soil structure. Solar park lights come designed for areas where the focus is on the aesthetics and the structure of the lights. Their environmental friendly working mechanism allows for use in such places and other recreational areas. At night, you can use Solar park lights to illuminate pathways, the lawn, and benches in a park. They aim to enhance the look of the park. This will ensure that the parks are useful at night by area residents. Here are seven quick tips you can use when designing your light. The aesthetic of solar park lights comes packaged in the design of the lighting and power source. The design is done in such a way that there is minimal hindrance to bird movement and exposure to dust or dirt. Aesthetics can also be achieved by the type of finishing, the perfect match between pole and structure coatings and the environment. Most of the solar park lights come with a decorative design depending on the style that appeals to your needs. Stylish lighting fixtures are available when you wish to add that aesthetic value on your park lights. The height of solar park lights is determined by the area that needs illumination. For instance, if you wish to light up the paths in the park then the height would be shorter than the one to be used to illuminate an entire park. As much as the brightness of the light depends on the height of the pole, you can still achieve the level of illumination you need with any height. This requires some professional calculation that starts with the area that needs to be visible and then choosing the light source while keeping in mind the height to brightness ratio. For the maximum efficiency and savings, solar park lights come with LED fixtures coupled with solar panels. The use of LED and high-pressure sodium lamps have been associated with cost savings in the sense that they produce bright lights without consuming too much power. Calculations are required to avoid light pollution or spill. After calculating the area where you want your solar park lights to illuminate, you will need the assistance of motion sensor technology to control the brightness of the lights depending on the limiting conditions you set. The poles used for solar park lights are usually made of hot-dipped, powder-coated, galvanized steel. The choice of material allows the streetlight to withstand a variety of harsh weather conditions. The use of steel poles in solar park lights allows for reflection of light rays because of its shiny surface. Besides boosting your lighting needs, steel poles are corrosion resistant. The type of pole you use should serve you for a longer time. The fixtures on solar park lights should provide a wide range of lighting intensity and distribution pattern that fits the area you need to illuminate. The height of the poles and the distance between them determines the overall illumination. There is a myriad of fixture styles available for park lighting. In areas that have high temperatures and strong sand winds, the masts are designed with vertical solar panels to limit silting and increase the performance of the solar park lights. Solar park lights should be easy to assemble and install. The components should be easily replaceable to reduce the cost and time of repair and maintenance. Besides, the solar park lights should allow for customization in case you need to change the bulb type, bulb intensity, bulb shade, or pole height. It has been observed that solar park lights with independent solar panels have a lower performance rate compared to all in one or rigid ones. If you are to go with solar lights that use split or separate solar panels, then you should determine the optimum tilt angle when installing installation. Tilting the solar panel makes it a self-cleaning product hence preventing silt and dust from settling on the surface. The rule of thumb when installing solar panels or PV arrays for your solar light is that they should be perpendicular to the sun's rays for maximum energy production. By default, the angle of tilt of your fixed solar panel should be equal to your latitude, plus or minus 15 degrees in winter, or summer respectively. Contemporary solar park lights come with adjustable solar panels that track the movement of the sun. The controllability of the solar panels allows for maximum conversion of solar energy into electricity. In short, adjusting the angle of tilt of your solar panel gives you a boost on energy production and reduces the need for cleaning. Experts in areas with extreme temperature conditions tend to avoid the use of lithium batteries in solar park lights. The reason being, Lithium batteries have poor performance when it comes to high temperatures. In most cases, the lead-acid battery has been an alternative to the lithium-ion battery. As much as performance is determined by the type of battery, it is also essential to consider the Depth of discharge (DoD) when selecting the battery for your solar lights. The DoD determines the lifespan of your battery. The best situation to use solar park lights is when the area of interest is far away from the grid power source. Also, they are suitable when no modification is required on the ground to facilitate the supply of electric power. The best solar park light is the one that is customized to your needs and a natural fit for all weather conditions. Generally, solar park lights should complement the open space.1. Do out door solar lights work?Solar Xmas Lights2. Apart from candle light how else do villages generate light in India?pl,do not think villages in india have no electricity.they least most of them have. they do not burn candlesticks often as they are too expensive. they have gasolene lamps,kerosene lamps,spirit lamps and solar lights too.3. outdoor solar lights - not working after being flooded?I will politely disagree with the answer above. A bright white basking light is the best way to provide daytime heat for a bearded dragon. I have seen it for years, in many dragons, some over 8 years old. As for the specific bulb, most of the "specialized" reptile basking lights are halogen spotlights or floodlights. There is really very little difference in those and the halogen floodlights and spotlights you buy at the hardware store. There are some differences in the exact colour temperatures, but there are some differences in all bulbs, each "reptile" bulb from the other, etc. .. and they all work fine. You do still need a high output UVB bulb, and this can not be replaced with any other bulb. The halogen floodlights will not provide UVB, (neither will the halogen "reptile" basking lights, btw.) The only type of "all in one" basking lights that also provide UVB are called Mercury vapor bulbs. And they are usually pricey, and fragile, (they typically burn out easily). So, The halogens WILL NOT work for UVB needs
How About the Development for Led Outdoor Solar Street Light?
San Diego announced last year that it is building the world's largest smart city led outdoor solar street light IoT platform and using CityIQ solutions developed by General Electric (GE) to improve parking, traffic and public safety on city streets. The CityIQ solution is a smart city digital infrastructure launched by GE and based on Intel technology that provides sensors that can be installed in led outdoor solar street light.Austin Ashe, general manager of Current's Smart City, said that this is only the beginning, as most of the data collected by the led outdoor solar street light Internet of Things (IoT) network will be released publicly, and the city allows and encourages software developers to use the data to build applications to help Local residents and visitors. The led solar street light system network can also be connected to the city's existing ShotSpotter network, which automatically locates sources and monitors sound in real time, and many municipalities use ShotSpotter to increase the efficiency of law enforcement. The addition of smart led solar street light system can increase the coverage of ShotSpotter from 10 square kilometers (about 4 square miles) to a wider area.Led solar street light system can use the sensor network deployed throughout the city to alert the police to dangerous situations by recognizing the sound of broken glass or car accidents; through a gun detection application, they can pass precise positions in less than a minute. Information captures more than 90% of shooting incidents to help first aid personnel.San Diego is said to have the world's largest network of solar street light price list IoT sensors in the world, involving GE, AT&T and Qualcomm and other public and private sectors. The city is constantly striving to operate the city's intelligence, and recently won the 2018 Smart 50 Award.All of this started in San Diego and began to replace some solar street light price list with smart street lights·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is proffesional led stage lighting?When you're putting on an occasion, whether it is an unassuming school play or a party, stage lighting rental is an unquestionable requirement. Lighting is a main thrust of your production, giving brightening, center, detail and modifying the view of the group of audience. There is nothing that so vitally passes on an inclination superior to a decent lighting system, and with boundless inventive potential, will serve as an immense advantage for your creation.Focus, position and hanging:Conventional stage lighting must be set up because of these three contemplations. Focus refers to where the light will point; position alludes to where the light will start from; hanging refers to the real demonstration of hanging the light. Shading, force and example (assuming any) should be considered next.Types of stage lighting :Ellipsoidal - these lights are the conventional stage lights and thought to be the most critical. They are centering lights, the appearance in front of an audience of which can be adjusted by screens and channels.Fresnel - these lights are utilized for shading washes on the stage.Standard Jars - these lights are the sort you will see in even the dingiest of bars. Continuously a strong choice, standard jars can get hammered, are sturdy and simple to transport.Follow spots - these are spotlights used to pursue somebody around a phase.Obviously, there are increasingly choices accessible for stage lighting with the consistent progress of innovation. Presently you have the fundamentals; here are a couple of more alternatives:LEDs - these Professional LED Stage Lightingare useful for centered pillars and have been gradually supplanting conventional globules in stage lighting.Dizzies - these lights are round circles with a few Drove lights (more often than not of varying hues) covering the surface. The circle pivots in an assortment of bearings and examples, making a whirling, confounding example, consequently the name.Gels - this term alludes to the hues given to lights. They function as shading channels, and should work in congruity with the shade of the light itself to accomplish the craved impact.Once you have got your types of lighting down, you'll have to consider where to place them. Here's an essential summary of lighting positions:Front - This is utilized for the most part for perceivability and shading impacts. Side - can be utilized to awesome impact to complement activity.Back - Additionally utilized for impact. This kind of lighting can make the dream of profundity on a phase, or notwithstanding to silhouette a man totally.
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