Guide to Shop 5.5 X 5.5 Solar Post Caps in Kemeco


On this page, you can find quality content focused on 5.5 x 5.5 solar post caps. You can also get the latest products and articles that are related to 5.5 x 5.5 solar post caps for free. If you have any questions or want to get more information on 5.5 x 5.5 solar post caps, please feel free to contact us.

5.5 x 5.5 solar post caps stands out in the market, which is beneficial to the development of Kemeco Lighting. It is produced abiding by the principle of 'Quality First'. We carefully choose the materials to guarantee the quality from the source. By adopting advanced equipment and techniques, we make the stability and durability of the product happen. During each process, the product is manufactured adhering to the international standard.Kemeco products maintain some of the highest commercial ratings available today and are winning greater customer satisfaction by consistently meeting their needs. The needs vary in size, design, function and so on, but by successfully addressing each of them, large and small; our products earn the respect and trust of our clients and become popular in the global market.Custom service promotes the development of the company at Kemeco Lighting. We have a set of mature custom process from preliminary discussion to finished customized products, enabling customers to get the products like 5.5 x 5.5 solar post caps with various specifications and styles.
recommended articles
Why Solar Lights Manufacturers Is the Better of the Other
Why Solar Lights Manufacturers Is the Better of the Other
The introduction of solar lights manufacturersWith more than 50% of the world's energy consumption comes from solar energy. This means that it is much easier to install solar lights than to use traditional light bulbs. It also means that they can be safely stored and stored away from heat sources like street lamps and lanterns. In fact, it is possible to buy solar lights at an all-in-one discount.If you have any doubt about the design of solar lights then we recommend that you look at their company website.It is no secret that there are some very good solar lights in the market, but if you are considering buying solar lights then there are a lot of companies that sell them, and it is easy to see why so many people choose to use solar lights. They are usually small and light weight, but they also have a range of features that make them suitable for most homes. They also have an option for women who want to make their home as comfortable as possible.It is always good to know what kind of energy source you are looking for. Most solar lights have very long batteries and are generally smaller than most incandescent lights. If you are looking for a cheap energy source then solar lights are the best choice. You can buy solar lights online from any place in the world. It is also great to have solar lights that can be attached to your garden or on your roof.This article discusses solar lights. Solar lights are basically just another way of lighting lamps. They are used to make light bulbs and turn them on in the night. A solar light bulb can be turned on by placing a watt of electricity in the bulb and when the bulb is lit, the energy stored in the bulb goes into the bulbs. This means that the energy stored in the bulbs will be enough to power the bulbs for a year. If the bulb is not lit, the energy stored in the bulbs will be gone.Tips for choosing solar lights manufacturersSolar lights manufacturers are very reliable and they provide many different types of solar lights. If you want to get solar lights from your home then you need to check their specifications. Solar lights manufacturers also provide different kinds of solar lights, so you need to make sure that they have good quality and they also provide good prices. There are many types of solar lights, so you need to make sure that they have good quality and they also provide good prices. There are many types of solar lights, so you need to make sure that they have good quality and they also provide good prices.A lot of solar lights manufacturers use low-power lithium ion batteries for their products. When they are using high-power lithium ion batteries, they use less energy than conventional batteries. In order to be able to produce a sufficient amount of electricity, they need to have enough space for their battery. When using lithium ion batteries, they need to be rated at 25V and that is why they are known as lithium ion batteries. These batteries can last up to 15 years and will not require any regular maintenance. This makes them ideal for people who want to buy solar lights.Solar lights manufacturers are known as solar lights. They are commonly used in industrial buildings, commercial buildings, homes and many other places in the world. Solar lights manufacturers have also been known to make energy efficient by improving the quality of their products. Solar lights manufacturers have been around for many years and it is always an exciting time to be a solar lights manufacturer. If you are interested in buying solar lights then please visit solar lights manufacturers are some of the best in the market. They have good durability and low cost, so they are suitable for most homes and businesses. These solar lights can also be used to help you with your home's heating bills. You can choose from different types of solar lights to provide a lot of light that will last you a long time. This type of solar lights also come in a variety of shapes and sizes, so you can choose the one that suits your needs best.How to use solar lights manufacturers?Solar lights are becoming more and more popular. These solar lights are typically powered by solar batteries and these batteries can be turned on or off at will. They can also be used to add value to your home and business. Solar lights are very similar to incandescent lights, so they have some advantages over traditional light bulbs. Solar lights are cheaper than incandescent lights and you can save money on electricity bills by buying them separately. If you want to save money on electricity bills then solar lights are the best choice. You can choose from several different types of solar lights, so you can choose the best one for you.Most of the time people are unaware of the technology that they use and how to use it. Solar lights are an energy efficient way to light up a room or a house and you can get some out of your electricity bill. It's called solar lights because they can turn on any type of light bulb, so you can see all the different colors of the sun in the sky. When you turn on the light bulb, it will start flashing yellow and green, and then it will brighten up as you move closer to the sun.There are two main types of solar lights. One is used by homeowners who own their own homes and have children. Another is used by home builders who want to build a home in their backyard. It is very important to choose the right type of solar lights and make sure that they are rated on a good basis. A good solar lights manufacturer will give you a quote for the project and if you have any questions, please contact us.Led solar lights manufacturers have been around for years and their successes are only beginning to change. However, there are some great products that have been used in a way that has made them a popular choice for people who want to be able to get out of their home without needing to hire a contractor. All you need to do is get your own solar lights and install them on your property. The more you learn about solar lights, the better you will be in the long run.The specifications of solar lights manufacturersWe all know that there are many kinds of solar lights, but there are many more types of solar lights. If you want to have a good looking light then it is best to get one from the company and compare their products. Solar lights can provide a bright light that will make your eyes see you and your surroundings better. They can be installed in a variety of ways and they can be found in different shapes and sizes. It is best to choose the best solar lights for your needs.Led solar lights manufacturers have worked very hard to ensure that they are doing their best to meet the latest and greatest standards for solar lights. There are some companies that provide good solar lights, but most of the people who do not have a lot of money to make do with solar lights will still be paying their fair share of money to get solar lights installed on their property. This is because they are also known as solar lights and it is important to know what kind of solar lights are used in your home and what type of solar lights are used for.Solar lights are used by about 25% of the world's energy. With more than $500 billion invested in solar lights now, it is estimated that around 50% of all electricity will be generated by solar lights. The rest will come from batteries, which are smaller and lighter than fossil fuels. Most of the world's renewable energy comes from solar power. So if you want to save money on your electricity bills then solar lights are the best choice. Solar lights can help you save money on your electricity bills by replacing your old ones with solar lights.Solar lights are actually very light and energy efficient. They have an efficiency of about 80% and can save you about $1,000 per year on your electricity bills. Solar lights are becoming more and more popular because they have higher efficiency and they are usually made from lighter materials. You can choose from several different types of solar lights, including outdoor solar lights, nighttime solar lights, and battery solar lights. These solar lights can be purchased in various shapes and sizes and are a great way to make sure that you get the best deal on your purchase.The application of solar lights manufacturersThe benefits of solar lights are endless. It is easy to find them online and in most cases they are extremely popular. If you have any doubt about what the benefits of solar lights to your property then contact us and we will give you a test drive of your solar lights. You can get a quote online or call us on 01879 7445 today. Our team will help you understand the options available and make sure you understand the difference between a solar lights and a solar lights.If you have ever seen a picture of a solar light on your property, you would know how it works. The energy we use to produce our light and then use that energy to heat our homes can be reduced by using solar lights. There are two types of solar lights, traditional and solar street lights. Both types of solar lights use lithium ion batteries to generate electricity. These lights use batteries to power our electrical devices. They also use batteries to run our phones and computers.If you are interested in getting solar lights into your home then make sure you get a good deal. The more energy you use, the better your home will be. Most of the time, solar lights will have a problem with overheating and water that can build up in your system. It is also important to note that there are many types of solar lights, so it is important to check what kind of solar lights you have and how much they cost. Also, if you have any questions about solar lights then ask your local Solar Street Lights team.Solar lights are an environmentally friendly way to light up your garden. They can be made from renewable energy and have a lifespan of around 100 years. It is easy to install and it has low energy consumption. The cost of solar lights is just as important as the profit you make. Solar lights can save you money in the long run because they last longer and can also help you save on electricity bills if you use them correctly. If you are considering buying solar lights then it is good to check their reviews. You can get a quote online and compare their options.
Solar Street Light Price and Costs Involved
No doubt solar-powered street lights have become quite popular these days for the benefits it offers to the citizens. It's less energy cost, reduced battery prices and the new technologies that consume less energy. No doubt these solar-powered street lights provide lighting without any electrical power source and are also not connected to any grid. The main thing about these lights is that they require a battery which stores the energy that the solar panels harness from the sun, which gets converted to light.My Subwoofers are wired parallel and I didn't know which amp to get?Kenwood KAC-9104D 1800-Watt Max Power 1 ohm Capability Class D Mono Power Amplifier with Variable LPF is amazing. With the gain over 3/4, it is TOO POWERFUL for any kind of conversation in my 08 Civic. I also bought a 1 Farad capacitor, because my headlights were dimming. This amp has not cut out once, even in near 100 degree heat and bumpin'. I recommend this amp because of it's flawless performance, light price, active cooling, and heavy hitting power. I am very impressed with this amp. dWhy did fueling and lighting prices decline in the late 19th century?electricity, cheaper than whale oil. industrial coal mining and transport cut the cost in comparison to former times.should go back too my old amp?No , i think u can try this Kenwood KAC-9104D 1800-Watt Max Power 1 ohm Capability Class D Mono Power Amplifier with Variable LPF is amazing. With the gain over 3/4, it is TOO POWERFUL for any kind of conversation in my 08 Civic. I also bought a 1 Farad capacitor, because my headlights were dimming. This amp has not cut out once, even in near 100 degree heat and bumpin'. I recommend this amp because of it's flawless performance, light price, active cooling, and heavy hitting power. I am very impressed with this amp. @@@Honda City Back light price ?Honda City Pakistan PriceHow does a merchant ensure sufficient value in light of the price volatility?Normally it depends on your payment processor and the contract. Transaction is been given some time (mostly defined in a contract) where it is reserved as the value. Here the payment processor has to provide it regardless of the fluctation. For that reason payment processor does use fees and insurance/reinsurance is also a must for the payment processor.We had similar scenario with an ATM machine in one european country, it was very similar. I would also say that there are some speculating projects where in cooperation with another payment processor, the variety of what can be done is huge.I could write here more, but I think it would be offtopic, hope the info I wrote helpsbudweiser clydsdale bar light price?Look up those kinds of things on eBay to get an idea of what they are selling for. But, if it's a real bar light and not a cheap knock-off (and in good shape), you are probably looking at around $200Whats a great Nikon (super) wide angle lens for low light... prices?the shadow on the backside of the photograph is without doubt from mild fall off brought on by means of the flash no longer protecting the subject; use a diffuser at the flash with the lens on the 18 to 24 mm atmosphere utilising a tripod will permit you to make use of a slower shutter pace whilst nonetheless utilising the aperture had to get the intensity of discipline had to maintain the whole lot sharp only for reference the 50mm lens on a 35mm digicam is the "usual" lens wider than that's broad perspective longer is telephoto on a medium structure digicam ie hasselblad it's an 80mm lens and on a 4x5 digicam this is a 135mm lens. This is approximately the size of the diagonal of the poor. A well portrait lens on a 35mm digicam is a 135mm however for panorama a frame demands no less than a 28mm 20mm is higher. the trick is get the lens so that you can duvet such a lot of your demands the vast majority of the time however then if rate is not an hassle simply get all of them
7 Best Solar Lights for Home and Garden in India
Are you tired of frequent power cuts? Well, I was also exhausted with this problem, but the problem seems sorted now!Electricity is quite a common issue in cities as well as villages. Whether it is due to overload or extra demand, frequent power cuts can hamper a lot in our daily lives. Difficult was the time when we had to deal with the situation anyhow. But as the system has advanced, we are now fully equipped for a comfortable life through the use of modern equipment that generates electricity with the help of light.Yes, you read that right; solar lights can do wonders for you.What if the power shortage is too much even to charge the light? Well, no worries, the recent advancement in inverter technology is no less than magic. A solar light can sustain you even in the minimum supply of electricity.These lights come with multiple solar panels that charge up using the sunlight and sufficient to provide you with all the comfortable amenities.Though the market is flooded with hundreds of such brands and products, you need not worry since we have got your back here. You no longer need to turn down millions of web pages to find the perfect product since you have landed just on the right page.Stay with us to find out the best solar inverter in India without any hassle.What are the best solar lights?If you want just the perfect brand for the best solar lights, then you are in the right place. Solar light is beneficial in enormous ways. In the depth of winter, solar lights provide significant advantages with much-needed illumination. The solar light can help your entire house and garden as well. You can even use solar lights for street lights.Solar lights make your home look incredible and provide an easier way for the visitors when installed on the pathway. As we know, solar light is environmentally friendly, and one can easily avail of the features and advantages of solar lights.If you have decided to get one of the most influential and best quality solar lights for your home or streets, then make sure to choose the best set by our researched list given below.XERGY Solar lights are the best solar street light to consider if you are decisive about purchasing solar lamps. This light is enormously beneficial in several ways. The best thing about this solar light is that it has excellent features to offer to the users. XERGY Solar lights are mainly used for the paths to bright the walkways during night time. Mainly these lights consist of four lights but give sufficient brightness. Ring Solar Pathlight can light up a wide range of surroundings with its adequate illumination power.This solar light is also available in black color only, and the rate of brightness allocated by this solar light includes 96 LED lamps in total. To consider the battery factor then their battery is also long-lasting. Mainly the battery life of Ring Solar Pathlight depends on the way to use it. But you can expect long-term brightness with these solar lights.The best thing about purchasing this light is that it is weather-resistive and does not allow any weather or environments to affect the system of XERGY Solar lights. The weather resistance of these solar lights consists of IP66. This solar light is specially designed with the concept of a torch mode.XERGY Solar lights provide beneficial features like it also has to offer an adjustable brightness system to the users to adjust the level of brightness. Sometimes smart intelligence is not acceptable, and you can easily adjust the light level at your convenience.They provide a brightness setting system that users can avail themselves of easily.The sun King 400 is the best choice when to comes to emergency solar lamps. It has efficient brightness that is distributed in three modes according to your requirement. The three modes are given as; Turbo Mode: 400 Lumens - 5 hours; Medium Mode: 150 Lumens - 12 hours; Low Mode: 25 Lumens - 100 hours. Having a look at this, we can simply imply how efficient this light is.Sun King Pro 400 is fitted with a standard 5 volt USB charging port and a massive battery capacity allowing users to load more phones or USB-powered gadgets day or night by connecting a lamp to the device. The charging indicator shows how much of the charge is expected.It has landed on the last of our list because of the design and its unary function of just providing an essential light for the necessary chores. Although the standby and the working modes are quite efficient when it comes to its features at this price range, it is certainly not a tough competition for its competitors. But for a person who has just a primary use of the light can indeed sustain with its features around.It can act as a USB charging port.The design is quite outdated.These solar lights are readily available at Amazon, or you can also get them from any store. You can easily find it in the market. Greenlight Planet Sun King Home 60 provides an effective range of brightness with a simple on and off switch. Aootek Solar lights are available in black color only, and this includes two lights. This solar light's main feature is that the brightness rate is exceptionally incredible and provides the range of 128 LEDs. This can widely cover a large portion of the area to make it bright all around.Book Solar lights also contain weather resistance features and allow you to avail water resistance rating about IP65. Mainly this solar light is 8 inches. These solar lights are specially built with switches so that you can install them anywhere in the house.Finally, the energy hub enables it to supply power and charge these lights so that they can be turned on. The central part of this solar light is its battery. The battery of Greenlight Planet Sun King Home 60 has a 6000 mAh rechargeable battery. This solar light provides sufficient light with the best sensor motion and gets you through the night quickly.It contains three lights, which is positively incredible.It is worthy of your money.It comes with two years of warranty.Wipro Coral Plus Rechargeable Solar LED Lantern is the best choice for people who want to use a set of lights in their home or streets or gardens to give an impressive look. If you are going to choose one set, then make sure to go for these solar lights. Wipro Coral Plus Rechargeable Solar LED Lantern is 15.4 centimeters high and strives to provide 360 degrees of light.The power of illumination of lights is awe-inspiring and will make your home or street bright enough to illuminate your path. The best part of this solar light is made from hard plastic, which provides more durability and is unbreakable. Wipro Coral Plus Rechargeable Solar LED Lantern is more durable as compared to any other standard lights. This solar light provides IP65 ratings, which can withstand the elements that usually damage its competitors.Wipro Coral Plus Rechargeable Solar LED Lantern has a built-in battery system that allows users to light up their homes for about twenty or more hours. The best feature of this solar light is that it has a 4000 Mah battery that enables the light to be used when there is no sense of light for longer durations.Wipro Coral Plus Rechargeable Solar LED Lantern is readily available in the Amazon store at an affordable price. You need not hamper your budget to get the most effective and best solar lights. This light is available in various colors, and you can choose as per your preferences.This is built with high-quality material.Easy to set it up for chargingIf you are looking for the effective and best solar lights to get high rated brightness, you can purchase Hardoll Solar Lights. This solar light is widely accepted by the people and is committed to providing a high brightness level. The best thing about Hardoll Solar Lights Landscape Spotlights is that it has 20 LED arrays. Their illumination power is highly incredible and will impress with the range of brightness with multi-color option.This solar light star panel is specially built into the light's head and makes it more compact. Hardoll Solar Lights are durable and provide an easy to install process. You can easily set it up. You do not have to use any words or extra batteries to make it workable.Hardoll Solar Lights come with impressive designs and cors. You can choose your choice of colors with the best design. This light is available in several varieties, like warm white and cold white. The battery power of this solar light is incredible and can last for 12 hours or more. This light works in light mode and dark mode. In highlight mode, this can effectively work for up to 6 hours.It gives a high range of brightness.Does not allow flexible placementThese solar lights are readily available at Amazon, or you can also get them from any store. You can easily find it in the market. IFITech Solar LED lights provide an effective range of brightness with robust motion detection for the security purpose. Aootek Solar lights are available in black color only, and this includes one single light. This solar light's main feature is that the brightness rate is exceptionally incredible and provides a range of 20 LEDs. This can widely cover a large portion of the area to make it bright all around.IFITech Solar LED lights also contain weather resistance features and allow you to avail water resistance rating about IP65. Mainly this solar light is 8 inches. These solar lights are specially built with sensors to automatically turn on the lights at dusk or dim light with the best in class security. These lights automatically detect if there is any darkness or dust and automatically turn on the lights. You do not have to be concerned about turning on the lights manually. Their sensor system is impressive, and one can easily get impressed with this system.IFITech Solar LEDs provide a wide array of 3X output array and also contain a sensitive motion sensor. Motion sensors allow detecting the lights or dusk from all around in every direction. The features of the sense's moment are highly impressive and gain a classic look as well. The motion sensor can detect people or objects up to quite a feet away in a 120-degree arc.The IFITech Solar LED is the best way to light up the streets for walkways and have the power to catch most of the things that cross its path. According to this solar light company, installing the solar lights at 5.5 feet high approx is recommended. This will provide the most effective brightness range with better sensor detection with a standard battery of 2000 mah.Provides three days of continuous light once charged fully.Brightens and dims as per the object's closeness to the light.This is the best choice of solar lights as it is highly affordable. The people highly recommend Happenwell solar spotlight for its high performance. This solar light provides high rated brightness with 20 LEDs. One can quickly get this solar light at the amazon store at the best price. Happenwell solar spotlight is worth your money, and the quality material of this solar light is highly impressive. If you are concerned about long-lasting lights, then make sure to prefer the Happenwell solar spotlight. This will give you a maximum battery life of about eight to ten hours. This solar system is fantastic as it also provides a total runtime of 50000 hours.Happenwell solar spotlight allows you to shine some light outdoors to get featured at night. This is the latest model of solar lights. Happenwell solar spotlight provides a large solar panel that consists of more than six lights.You can prefer to purchase this solar light if you are considering it worth your money.Affordable and best for your moneyNeed to charge for about 4 to 5 hours.● Can we use solar light for home light?Yes. If you want to use solar lights at your home, you need to set them up on your roof for charging purposes.● Can solar lights be suitable for cloudy days?Yes. Solar lights are built-in good quality metal and have water resistance power, which does not allow water to harm the lights.The solar lights are specially built to protect against any situation. This is made by keeping the concept of weather conditions. Make sure to use waterproof solar lights to ensure more safety.● Where can I get the best solar lights at an affordable price?If you want to purchase the best quality Solar lights, you can simply buy them from Amazon. Amazon provides the best solar lights with the best performance cost-effective.● How much can the battery last?The battery power of any specific solar lights depends. The battery can last for 8 to 12 hours.Solar lights do not need to run long wires under your lawn, and you do not have to replace the battery. You can use sun rays to make it fully charged for working effectively during night time. Solar lights provide an easy to install process. You just need to stick those solar lights in the ground, and then you can directly use solar lights' power role.It has become prevalent, and most people prefer to use solar lights to minimize the factor of wired bulbs or lamps. A mainly wired system causes quite troubles to adjust, and the battery system is also not appreciable.Solar lights do not require any battery or wires to run. You can use solar lights in a hassle-free manner and in accordance with multi-purposes!Why do my home lights flicker and the breakers never trip?This Site Might Help You. RE: Why do my home lights flicker and the breakers never trip?
Ideas for Garden Lights
Adding lighting to the garden can take on any design that the homeowner wants. There are many different ideas for garden lights, some designed to create an extended living space beyond the interior of the home and others designed more for safety and security. Still other ideas combine the two to create a safe, warm, outdoor living space for entertaining or simply enjoying in the early evening hours during wind down time.Solar garden lights are one idea for garden lights that bring the added benefit of saving electricity, which fits in well with the big push to go green and save the environment. Solar lights also allow the homeowner to do the installation without the aid of an electrical contractor while at the same time providing ample lighting and beauty.Solar lighting is available in many of the same designs as traditional electrical lighting including solar landscape rocks for pathway lighting and solar stake lighting for enhancing garden features and bringing the landscape to life. There are solar hanging lights that can be draped in bushes to bring them alive after the sun goes down.Water features are greatly enhanced with garden lights. There are both in-water and waterside lights to help bring water features to the forefront of the garden scene. Pools and ponds can be outfitted with underwater colored lights that create amazing shadow dances across and underneath the water. Water fixtures such as fountains can be accented with spotlights or hidden lighting that casts its glow on the piece, making it stand out from the cover of darkness.If safety and security are the main concern with garden light designs then little more is needed than pathway lighting and possible motion detection lighting for dark corners of the landscape so that intruders will avoid the area. Pathway lighting can be used to line driveways, walkways and other walking areas of the landscape. This type of lighting can vary and be as subtle as landscape rocks with lighting built in or post lighting installed every few feet to light the way to the comforts of home.Ideas for garden lights are limited only by the imagination and creation of the landscape designer or homeowner. Choose a plan that accents the garden or provides a sense of safety and let the garden be a place of respite and fun to all who visit.
Can I Build My Own Home?
good luck on buying Cheap, to build with out permits go to TN & KY Only states that have common sense. as for appliances check out camper appliances they run off of a candle or propane, [ the amish can tell you where to get them ] or best yet see how they live fridge& freezer get a Good wood stove, use to heat & cook as for solar power it will take a lot of panels to run a home, use solar lights [shed lights] the Sensor is out side & the lights are inside for water set up rain barrels filter it1. How long does it take for new solar lights to work?One good sunny day should give them sufficient charge to turn on for awhile. My mother has a set and they charge up and work pretty well after a sunny day. Make sure the batteries are installed OK and properly oriented and maybe double check the instructions for any tips you may have missed.2. have land but not enough money to build or buy house but want to live there anyway. what building is cheapest?take a bunch of saplings, bend them in to a hogan , [dome shape hut] cover it with clay. dig into a hill side make a cave, check in to a rent able building, [rent to own] you can get them 12 ft long 8 ft wide or bigger, i have 2 cabins like that, you can put a full size bed in one or a bunk bed style, insulate it, use solar lights, make a out house [allowed in tn]3. What are your green gift ideas?Try google search with keywords like : 'solar panels', 'solar battery charger' , 'solar lights', 'solar ____' whatever you can think of like - garden lights. are newable energy', 'solar air conditioning' , Also give 'windpower' a try. There are allover some very successful and interesting projects that can be done. Enjoy.4. Best Solar Landscape Lights: Save the Earth and Your Family With Today! 2021Not only that but they make your yard look nice. Do not tell me you've never driven past a house with cool landscaping lights and thought, "I need some of those lights in my life." But how do you find the best solar landscape lights, and what are the advantages of buying them? There are several benefits to using solar energy and having landscape lights. With the two combined into one product, you get all of those benefits in a single purchase. For one, solar energy is a renewable resource. That means that you will always have access to sunlight. Even on rainy and overcast days because your lights are still charging, they are just a little slower. It also does not cost anything to use, so once you buy your solar lights, you've already paid to use solar energy. Because of this, the best solar landscape lights will offer you the light you need during an emergency. If the power goes out, you still have access to sustainable energy. Solar landscape lights are also versatile so that you can place them practically anywhere around your home. There are four kinds of solar landscape lights that you should be aware of. That will help you know which will be best for your home. Solar garden lights are great for adding an ambient glow around your yard. They do not offer bright light, but there's enough to add elegant decoration that you can appreciate from your patio. Pathway lights are similar to garden lights, but they offer more light. Normally, you just stake them into the ground along the path, and the solar panels will do the rest of the work. A solar spotlight or floodlight provides much more light than the other types, and you can place them in a variety of ways. Some come with a stake to place in the ground, and others can attach to the side of your home or garage. Solar motion sensor lights, as the name implies, only turn on when the sensor detects movement. It's great for placing near a door or garage to light your way and deter potential criminals. Before you can decide what the best solar landscape lights are for you, you should assess your needs first. Consider why you want solar lights, where you would like additional lights, and how much sunlight you receive. If you want ambient lighting, you will want garden lights instead of spotlights. If you want to add extra security, spotlights and motion sensor lights will suit you best. Once you know the purpose of the light, you can choose a style that delivers what you need. You should also consider where you would place the lights. It will need to be in a place where the solar panel has access to sunlight all day and is not in the shade. Some areas will be difficult to light if there is not sunlight nearby. It's also important to note that not all solar energy lights are weatherproof. If you want to use lights all year long, rain or shine, you will need to find lights that have a defense against the elements. If not, you will need to bring the lights inside during the winter and whenever it rains. If you search online for the best solar landscape lights, you will find hundreds of results. There are seemingly countless brands and styles, and it's difficult to know which ones will meet your needs. However, looking at other opinions and customer reviews can help. We have searched through those sites and compiled information that will help you make a decision. There are so many highly-rated solar lights online, but we have found the best of each style for you. This makes it easier for you to conduct your own research and find the best solar landscape lights for your home. Once you know what kind of solar lights you need, you significantly reduce your list of options. From there, you can examine the features of each style and pick which suits you best. Some deciding factors may come down to the kind of lightbulb, price, and design. While browsing through your options, you may also decide that you want a style different than what you originally thought. Each one has excellent customer reviews, so you get to decide which is better. Be sure to examine each product, and you are sure to find the best solar landscape lights for your situation.
A Guide to the Best Street Solar Lights
A Guide to the Best Street Solar Lights
Introduction to best street solar lightsFor more information on best street solar lights and how to install them, please visit There are several types of solar lights available in the market, but there are also many different types of solar lights available. The following is a list of the most common types of solar lights and how to install them. All you need to do is just follow the instructions provided and then go through the installation instructions on the next page.The key to getting solar lights into your property is to know what kind of light you are looking for. To get the best solar lights into your property you need to have a quality lighting system. You need to have good lighting systems and also be able to give them an elegant look. Most of the time people don't want to buy any type of lighting system because they want to make sure that they get the best value for money. If you are looking for a cheap solar lights then it is good to check out some of the things that are important to know.The system of best street solar lights is composed of two parts: the light source and the ground. The ground is a wall that supports the house and also has an outside, so it needs to be properly set up. It needs to be installed in a proper way. A good street solar lights will make your home look nice and you will save money on electricity bills. If you have not been living in a place where you can enjoy your family for years, then it is better to start using the solar energy that you have already purchased.It is an important part of our daily lives and in order to be able to do that we need to get the most out of our energy use. This can be done by turning on a single bulb and also using the same light bulbs as solar lights. If you are interested in buying a good quality light bulb then please contact us on 0774 792210 or send us an email to and we will help you find the best one for you. You can buy a good quality light bulb from us here.First impression and using experience of best street solar lightsWhen you are buying a house, it is important to make sure that you know what kind of home you are buying. You need to understand what kind of home you are buying so that you can use it as a guide to get the best results. You need to have good eyesight and also be able to read through the text in the description. It is very important to use good quality information and understand what kind of home you are buying so that you can use it as a guide to get the best results.We have come a long way since we started working on our first job in 2006. The main goal of our work is to get people talking about the different types of solar lights we use and also to know what they are looking for in the search engine results. Most of the people who are searching for solar lights will find it very useful to read about different types of solar lights and learn what they are looking for in the search engine results. By reading about different types of solar lights you can help to improve your search engine.Getting to know your customers is a very important part of any project. A good person will be able to communicate with them in a way that is not as complex as what they see on their face. If you are going to have a large customer base then it is important to get the right people in the right position to help you out. You need to make sure that you get the right people who will give you the right advice on how to use your services.Our eyes are trained on the sun and it is difficult to see the world from a different perspective. If we have been taught to understand our own senses then we will know how to use our brain and our mind to do things better. We will learn how to use our senses to be able to make decisions, communicate and take actions in a more natural way. The right place to use your brain is at the moment of light.Pros and cons of best street solar lightsThere are some great brands out there that offer good quality solar lights, but most of them also come with very low cost. Some of the other brands are from leading companies in the industry. A lot of these companies have excellent products that will save you money on your electricity bills. Most of the companies that offer these solar lights also come with bad reviews about them. They don't give any warranty on their products and they can only be used by people who have purchased them.It is only because of the impact of technology that we can understand how much it is important to keep in mind that these are all different things. We have come a long way since we first saw them, but they all look like this 'The market is flooded with new products and their design has been approved by many to sell on their website. This makes it difficult to see what will be available in the market. There are so many other factors that affect the quality of the products and there are so many things that we can do to help make sure that we have all the information we need to keep our house beautiful.As far as I know, this is the only solution that we have available. However, it is also a bit hard to say how much easier it is to use than to install a couple of wires in the middle of the night. They are really easy to install and you can even get them installed in your own home if you have one installed on your property. We use two electric motors and a 2-pole brush motor for our wiring. All we need is a little DC power source to run our lights.When it comes to choosing the right street light, you need to make sure that you pick the right one. Choosing the right street light will not only ensure that you get the best performance but also have the right safety for your home. If you have chosen the right street light then you will be well placed to save money on your energy bills. You can choose the right street light from a variety of sources, such as solar power, LED lights, flashers, flood lights, and others. There are different types of street lights, so make sure that you pick the right one.Features to Consider When Buying best street solar lightsYou can choose the best street solar lights that suit your needs and preferences. Choose the best street solar lights that suits your needs and preferences. We have listed some of the best street solar lights in detail. They are available in a range of colors and we have provided some of the best street solar lights in detail. You can check out the features of the street solar lights by following the links below. These are the best street solar lights that you can buy.No one can predict the future with certainty. They can have their own opinion of what they want and their own judgement of what is best for them. You can always check out the quality of the products from their store by following the links below. If you are looking for the best street solar lights then go for the cheapest option and use their recommendations to make sure that you get the best deal on the solar lights.Everyone wants to have solar lights in their homes, but the reality is that most people don't have enough money to buy them. If you want to buy solar lights then you need to go through the information of different manufacturers and choose the best one for you. All you need to do is go through the options of different manufacturers and compare them with the price of the one you are buying.The only way to ensure that you get the best performance out of your solar panels is to make sure that they are well lit and keep their shape. The better lighting will help to reduce heat absorption in your home and improve the safety of your home. This will also make it easier to see what is going on around you when you are inside your home. Also, it will also help to reduce the amount of heat absorbed by your house if you are using a regular source of electricity.Reasons why you should buy a best street solar lightsYou should not only use your garden but also use your outdoor space as a source of income. If you have no money to buy a good street solar lights then you should make sure that you get the best deals possible. There are lots of people who will try to sell their house with solar lights and if you can't find the right place to buy them then it is time to look at other options.I've seen so many people turn to solar lights because they don't know the difference between a good street light and a bad street light. I have seen people do it themselves, but what does it really mean? They just want to know how much it is worth. You can read more about this in the article 'Best Solar Lights on Amazon: The Best Things You Can Do To Give Your Home A Chance' where the section focuses on 'Where can I find the best solar lights?' could look like this 'They are all around us and their applications are varied.I bought a bunch of these new low-emissions bulbs from an apartment in West Dallas, TX. They were not bad but they cost about $100 and they made my life easier. I have to say that they were pretty cheap and made my life easier. The ones that are also very affordable are just two light bulbs in one and one light bulb in the other. These bulbs make a great gift for someone who loves their city and wants to make their home as comfortable as possible.Many people think that solar lights are cheap, but it is actually very easy to use. They are just too complicated and not always easy to find the right one. People tend to go with the cheapest option, but they can easily make mistakes when it comes to buying the best street lights. A good homeowner will know what works best for them and what works best for him or her. If you have some knowledge about solar lights then you can start by reading this blog post.
Batteries for Solar Lights
Solar lights are powered by rechargeable batteries. They are charged during the day by solar panels affixed to the fixture. These batteries are designed to withstand a minimum of 1000 deep discharges which is at least 1000 nights of light. They are readily available and easy to replace. You merely open the compartment, pop them in and you are set.The preferred batteries for solar lights are either Nickel Cadium (NiCd) or Nickle Medal Hydride (niMH). They are preferred because they take a charge easily and last throughout a typical night without draining completely. NiCd batteries are very durable and reliable. They can be charged fast using a typical battery charger to restore power quickly. They can also be charged slowly making them an ideal candidate for charging with a a solar panel on a solar light. NiCd batteries should not be used for a short time then recharged. This result in a crystalline formation inside the battery which diminishes its performance. This is referred to as the "memory effect".The niHM batteries are the next level up from NiCd batteries. They cost a little more but offer up to 40% run time. The biggest advantage of NiMH over NiCd is their ability to accept a charge at any time without suffering from the "memory effect". These also can be charged rapidly or slowly making them a good candidate to power your solar lights.It has been said that when you first get your battery you need to run them through at least 3 full charge/discharge cycles before putting it into ordinary service. This will help obtain maximum capacity of the battery. For solar lights , you can put them out in the morning in a sunny area and by evening they will be ready for service.
The 11 Best Solar String Lights Top Picks & Tips 2019
Just so you know what to look for when buying solar string lights, let's quickly talk about the most important considerations to keep in mind before you make a final purchase. Of course, one of the main things to keep in mind before shopping is how long the lights actually last for on a single charge. Some solar lights only last for 4 or 6 hours, while others can last for 20 or more. It does depend on if the lights are steady or flashing, but at any rate, the longer the battery life the better. Yes, this will also depend on the battery being used in conjunction with the solar panel, as well as the panel itself, not to mention the amount of sunlight available. The average seems to be about 7 hours of charging time, which should allow for at least 10 hours of steady use. This might seem odd to mention, but because these are solar lights, they are attached to the solar panel via a cord. So, if you want the lights to be easy to set up, the cord needs to be long enough so you can put the lights where you want while also being able to find a good place for the solar panel. At the same time, the cord should also be easily bendable and shapeable so you can set them up wherever you see fit. Moreover, a high level of durability, plus being waterproof is important too. Another thing to always pay attention to before you purchase any solar string lights is what area they are meant for. Some solar string lights are strictly for indoor use, others only for outdoor use, and the best ones can handle both. Keep in mind that solar string lights which can be used indoors and outdoors will be more expensive. Some solar string lights can only be turned on or off. Others have a switch which can be used to activate them, but they will automatically turn on or off depending on the ambient light around them. We personally like the ones which allow you to choose between a steady light mode and a flashing mode. How long do the batteries on solar string lights last for? What is the minimum average amount of time solar string lights need to charge for? This really depends on the climate where you live. Some solar string lights are very durable and can handle some wetness and cold, while others cannot. You just have to read the packaging on a specific string light to see what it can handle and what it can not . Will they still charge on cloudy days? Simply put, no not really. While they will be able to pick up some light through cloud cover, where it might take 6 hours to charge them on a sunny day, on a cloudy day it could take well over a whole day. Some solar string lights can be used indoors, but charging them is a bit harder inside. Incandescent and fluorescent lights will help the panel to charge the battery, but not as well as real sunlight.1. Help with planning a home wedding...?If you would like some advise from a wedding planner without having the fee, here it goes: For the rentals, there should be someone in your area that rents tables and chairs. Try a local catering company first and if they do not actually rent the items, they may have someone they can recommend. Since I am not sure where you are, I can not really recommend anyone in particular. As for removing household items, what are your guests like and will there be alcohol served? If they are not normally rowdy (including when they are drinking), then you may be safe in having the TV around. The last wedding I helped organize had their reception in there home and they did not remove any of the household appliances. A good idea would be to picture your worst case scenario and then figure out if you can realistically seeing it get to that point. If you do not think it will, then do not remove stuff. As for the Universal Life Church - sorry, I can not help you here. Most of my weddings have been in either Baptist or Anglican churches and, in Canada, I have not heard of the Universal Life Church. Other suggestions - do you have solar lights in your yard anywhere? If not, they tend to add some ambience at night to a back yard and, if people will be milling around your yards throughout the day (and possibly the night), it sets a nice tone to the festivities. Also, they are not overly expensive. My sister just did our back yard for $50 and it looks great. As for food, keep it simple for yourself. You do not have the time (nor the desire) to spend the day in the kitchen preparing food. If you have the budget, maybe go to a local catering company and ask about a buffet or hors d'ouevres or trays of food, rather than a sit down dinner. If not, there are probably lots of stores in your area (including grocery stores) that will make up platters of food that you can pick up before the ceremony. Talking about food, what are your thoughts on a wedding cake? If you want that to be simple as well, some grocery stores do great things with simple cakes. One of the first weddings I did, the bride decided to just go with a sheet cake from the local Sobey's store rather than have a bakery make the cake. One other option, if you are so inclined, is that you could make the cake. If you think you have decent cake decorating skills and could do the job, why not try it. I have a friend that, when she got married, she made her own cake. Now, she went to school for Culinary so she could do it. If you think you can, all the power to you. As for decorating your place, look at party supply companies in your area. They always have interesting ideas and ways of decorating places for any occasion. Anyway, hope that helps. Best of luck. Check out my website (below) if you want any more suggestions.2. does darker skin age slower?yes...but only natural dark skin. lighter skin is more sensitive to solar lights, so they get wrinkles faster. especially when u tan3. where/whose are the best solar lights to buy?For what purpose? Lighting up a pathway? Accenting the yard? Security lighting? There are all kinds of solar lights available
Solar Garden Lights for Your Yard& Garden
Solar garden lights are becoming increasingly popular, and there are a couple of tips that can help you get the most out of your purchase. They include choosing the right size and location, as well as dealing with intense sunlight in the winter.Solar garden lights let you enjoy a beautiful display of colors without having to use any electricity. They also last for around eight years on average before they need to be replaced.In order to take full advantage of your solar light you should think about where it will be placed. Generally, they are best placed in areas that receive a lot of sunlight throughout the day because they will create an even glow and give off more light than other types of lights. You can also adjust them using remote controls to make sure that there is no excess glare in certain areas after sunset orUsing solar garden lighting is beneficial for your health and the environment. Some of them are also energy-efficient and durable, which is why they are gaining more popularity.Solar garden lights can be used in gardens, balconies, porches, courtyards and patios. They provide safety lighting at night, as well as ambient light during the day. However, you need to take care of these lights since they require regular maintenance such as changing bulbs and adding water to the system.Solar garden light can be used in different ways: some solar lights are stationary while others have an on/off switch or a timer on them. Some have motion sensors that activate when movement is detected in their proximity.The world will be a very different place in 20 years.Solar garden lights are a great way to save money by using solar power and energy efficiency. They can be installed in your garden and on any outdoor area.Solar garden lights are a great investment for both your home and the environment. They reduce the amount of electricity that you use from the grid, save you money, and provide you with an aesthetic outdoor space to enjoy at night.In this section, I will discuss the product instructions of solar garden light. The product is designed to be easy-to-install with low maintenance requirements (watering only).Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the future of artificial intelligence. It allows for the creation and usage of a whole new set of content generation algorithms.How to generate solar garden light from a small battery.A solar garden light is a technology that is growing in popularity over the last few years as people are starting to consider it as a more environmentally friendly alternative to traditional lights.Nowadays, we can find solar garden lights on the market that can rotate, stick to the wall or ceiling, and come with multiple lighting options. They are also more affordable than ever before.With these solar garden lights, you can go outside and still enjoy your outdoor space without worrying about changing or replacing batteries.A solar garden light is a great addition to your outdoor space. It can bring color and life to an otherwise dull or gloomy backyard. If you own one, it is important to know what general care and maintenance tips you should follow in order for your light to last.Lights typically don’t need special care, but there are some things that you should keep in mind when owning a solar garden light. For example, while they do not need water they will still rust if exposed to rain too often or if the shade isn’t protected from raindrops. You can also extend their lifespan by putting them in the sun every now and then so that they will have more charge for your next night out under the stars!Solar garden lights work by converting sunlight into energy through a deviceSolar Garden Light, a company that specializes in innovative and sustainable outdoor lighting products has just launched their new solar garden light - the Sunlight. This new product promises to bring a lot of convenience and peace of mind by illuminating your outdoor space while leaving this place cleaner than ever before.Solar Garden Light’s founder, Sam Lafferty, is excited about this new product as it is a symbol of sustainable living. It can also be used as a wonderful gift idea for your friends and family.This solar garden light is perfect for places where you want to have some brightness but don’t want to bother with ugly wires or batteries.The introduction of this solar garden light will bring convenience and peace of mind to all the people who need it most in an eco-friendly way
Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf
Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ahi need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooeyWhat can you do with dried figs?Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%wat can i do with figs?I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural formwhen is the best time to prune a fig tree?Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be further growth or leaf pruductionWhat does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...if i ate dried figs all day?that is a alot of fiber lolEdible unclonable functionsFigure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.
no data
Contact Us
Leave a message
We welcome custom designs and ideas and is able to cater to the specific requirements. for more information, please visit the website or contact us directly with questions or inquiries.

Contact Us


Service Support

 Copyright © 2021 Kemeco |Sitemap