How Do I Reset the Low Tire Pressure Sensor Light in a 2001 Chevy Impala?

Turn the ignition to run. Turn the radio off. Hold tune for like 10 - 15 seconds.

A menu should pop up on your radio. Then you can browse through for an option that says reset tire monitor

1. I have a 1986 Nissan Maxima -the sensor light went on - it's probably the OXYGEN SENSOR, RIGHT?

First if the light is on it does not mean what you think it is is wrong. If you buy the new on and it dont work, you just spent the money for nothing Go to Auto-Zone and thy will scan the car for free. Then and only then and only if thy say it is the O2 sensor do you need to replace it.

(NOTE) dont forget when you do put in the new part that you get the computer reset, other-wise the light will not go off and reset the computer

2. what is a sensor light that has to be cut off when you get rims?

Yeah, Tire Pressure Monitor.

Then again, you could just put the sensors on the new rims, and then the light would work properly

3. i need an outside sensor light and i have no electric we can not see to get into house .?

Unfortunately, you will have to have electricity.

As far as I know there are no battery powered sensor lights. Not yet any way. It would be a good idea though.

My suggestion is to carry a flash light with you to get into your house at night.

4. Bought two front tires for my 2008 Toyota Sienna at Walmart. How do I fix the sensor light?

Wl-Mart does not employ mechanics. They employ teenagers to change oil and mount tires

5. How can I fix my exterior sensor light?

If the red light is blinking.... it does know something is in front of it. What happens when you put it on the "test mode".

6.

2006 Ford Escape 4WD light always flashes and ABS sensor light is always on

With a tone ring that is cracked or missing a tooth the AWD will not function as long as the ABS light is on. The AWD utilizes that ring as well to control the function of the traction control

7. i just bought a car from toyota dealership now the Tire pressure sensor light is on?

Take it to Toyota and they should fix it for free. Any Toyota dealer

8. I have a 1986 nissan truck-the battery sensor light is on , WHY?

There is a voltage regulator inside the alternator. That over charging causes the light to glow. Gallops when you turn the key off is another problem make sure the throttle is all the way shut.

Throttle cable may be mis adjusted.

9. Where to buy sensor light ? On at dusk off at down?

Lowes or home depot,walmarts even have them.,,,,,

10. How to disable a motion detection sensor for a light?

there should be an override look up on the Internet the brand and you should be able to down load instructions

11.

2008 Chevy Silverado z71 4x4 tire sensor light stays on?

If the tire pressure is 5 pounds different than any other tire plus or minus it will keep the light on, also you may have a faulty TPMS sensor in the wheel, or your TPMS sensors need reprogrammed to the trucks ECU. Worst case The trucks ECU has quit sensing them unlikely but possible.

Make sure all tires are at 32-35psi and then go drive about a mile and the light may go away. If not then you need to get it to a tire shop and have it checked.

12. 04 Toyota 4Runner.

Tire pressure sensor light on. Please help!?

Toyota Sienna Tire Pressure Sensor

13. What is the purpose of humidity sensor and light sensor?

Based Light Sensor: CdS photocell used for light/dark controlled relay Circuitry for inexpensive Relative Humidity Measurement: National Semiconductor Application Notes,04-Nov-1995 Dual Comparators Stabilize Proximity Detector: 02/16/98 EDN-Design Ideas Infrared Body heat Detector: Low cost relative humidity transmitter uses single logic IC: 11/08/2001 EDN - Design Ideas / The low-cost percentage-relative-humidity radio transmitter in Figure 1 operates in a cold-storage warehouse for vegetable storage at temperatures of 1 to 5 C.

It is generally difficult to collect such data from a low-temperature area with high humidity and low illumination. The transmitter design is simple: It uses a readily available, capacitor-type percentage-relative-humidity se... you can generate a single TTL-level signal containing information from both sensors (Figure 1).

This design uses a 74HC123 monostable multivibrator, IC1, to form a free-running oscillator. Remote humidity sensor needs no battery: 04/04/2002 EDN - Design Ideas / Using ac-line power sources and batteries for remote humidity sensors is undesirable because these sources can be troublesome if you mount them in inaccessible points, such as smokestacks, cold-storage chambers, or darkrooms, where maintenance is difficult and inconvenient. Figure 1 shows a simple way to remove the power source from the humidity-sensor circuit.

Signal Conditioning Precisely indicates Humidity: 02/02/98 EDN-Design Ideas Simple Circuit Uses Optical Fiber To Send RelativeHumidity Data : 04/01/02 Electronic Design - Ideas for Design / The circuit shown in the figure measures relative humidity in air at the low temperatures found in applications like cold storage of food items and greenhouses. Instead of using electrical signal cables that... Tiny Dew Sensor: Transmitter senses triple relative humidity figures: 09/26/2002 EDN - Design Ideas / The circuit in Figure 1 is a triple, relative-humidity sensor and radio transmitter.

Sensors 1 and 2 form two gated oscillators with natural frequencies of 10 and 5 kHz, respectively, at relative humidity of 50%. The gated oscillators use variable resistances R2 and R3, respectively. Together, these two oscillators generate FSK-modulated outputs at output of IC1B, Pin 6..

copper solar post lights related knowledge:
  • Solar Traffic Light of LED Signal Light

    Solar traffic lights are signalling devices powered by solar panels positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings and other locations to control the flows of traffic. They assign the right of way to road users by the use of lights in standard colors (red - amber/yellow - green), using a universal color code

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copper solar post lights related q&a:
  • The Best Solar Post Lights

    How would you feel if you walk into your garden at night and see it illuminated with pleasant, ambient light? That would be great, is not it? That is the experience you get when you buy the best solar post lights.

    With the right solar post lights, you can light up your dark pathways, garden, yard, and outdoors without breaking the bank. Interestingly, these lights do not just illuminate your environment. They also improve the security around your home.

    Do you know the beauty of having these lights around your home? They run on clean and renewable energy. That means you wo not have to bother yourself with buying batteries or worry about an increase in electricity bills.

    And the fact that solar post lights generally perform well and are easy to install makes them quite popular. A unit of solar post light comes with a control system, solar panel, and sometimes LED light (depending on the brand). Interestingly, some of these lights are automated.

    They feature light sensors which automatically turn them on at dusk and turn them off at dawn. And they can last all night when fully charged. However, it's a bit challenging to select from some of the best solar post lights sold out there.

    Of course, every brand has unique features. So, picking the perfect solar post lights that meet your requirements is sometimes very difficult. But in this post, we have come up with a detailed review and buying guide to help you make the right choice.

    Which Brands Make the Best Solar Post Cap Lights? There are several brands out there that produce top-notch solar cap lights. However, here are the top 4 brands that produce premium quality solar post cap lights - FOOYANCHO, DAVINCI, KEMECO and HOME ZONE SECURITY.

    How to Maintain Solar Post Lights? Solar post cap lights do not really need much maintenance. All you need is to replace the batteries once in a while and clean the lights to enable them to function effectively.

    Can I Set Up My Solar Post Cap Lights Myself? Yes, you can set up your solar post cap lights yourself. It's relatively easy as most of the brands are beginner-friendly.

    At times there may be a well-explained guide on how to install the lights in the kit. So, you do not need to hire a technician to help you install your solar post lights. Where Can I Buy Solar Post Lights?

    You can buy your solar post cap lights anywhere, including online stores like Amazon, home depots, electrical shops, hardware shops, departmental stores, etc. However, it's advisable you shop your solar post lights online to get better deals.

  • The Best Solar Post Lights | LED Solar Lamp Post

    Most backyard, front yard, or footpath need a bit of elegance. Solar post lights can add that touch quickly. You can buy them without ruining yourself with monthly electricity bills.

    Once in place, they are self-sustainable. This is thanks to the small solar panels that lie on top of the solar lamp post light. Solar lamp posts come in many types.

    They range from the basic accent lights that do not call attention to classic style lamp posts that look reminiscent of Victorian times. Choosing between the best solar post lights can be time-consuming when you are unaware of their characteristics and features. Wading through the specs can be overwhelming.

    There are countless solar post lamps presently available out there. To make your buying decision more informed, we have selected the best products on the market. You will now have a good sense of what is available out there, and in which direction you should aim to get the right set of solar post lights.

    Choosing the right solar post light will warrant you will get good lighting for many years. They are a significant enhancement to any landscape and a convenient way to provide safety, security, and style to your property or garden. As long as you know what to look for.

    That's why it's essential to first decide why you need that light and where you plan to install it. Once you make up your mind, you can better focus on the characteristics and features that will meet your expectations. When planning to buy a product, the first question you should always ask yourself is, "what is my real need?

    " That's what you should precisely do as well when shopping for solar post lamps. Do not look for features that you will never use. An outdoor solar light should have a few essential functions.

    You want to carefully look at features like battery life, light intensity, or waterproof rating. Another aspect you should care about is run time. Your solar post light should stay lit all night long.

    We offer the perfect models for residential applications like patios, gardens, or even home entrances. They are eco-friendly, which will help you cut back on electricity bills. Check also our solar parking lights.

    If you are planning on using your lamp for an extended period, you do need one that can sustain its share of wear and tear. Cheaper types are made of plastic, but if you can afford the extra dollars, it's worth investing in a well-known brand. Be wary of cheap knockoffs.

    GREENLYTES ONLY FEATURES THE BEST SOLAR POST LIGHTS. Do not be fooled by their antique appearance. Even though some look like late 19th-century gas lamps, they are packed with state-of-the-art 21st-century solar technology.

    Solar lamp posts are just the way to add a touch of elegance to your garden without breaking the bank. They come in many shapes and sizes with different features, modes, and brightness. We sell the most stylish, reliable, efficient, and aesthetically pleasing solar lamp posts.

    Beyond creating beautiful and bright lighting wherever you need it, they also are elegant decorative items. Our post lights are weather and rust-resistant. Powder-coated aluminum is a beautiful and durable material.

    As an extra protection, each post light has sturdy tempered glass. LED lights can survive the harshest weather, like heat, rain, and snow. Solar lamp post lights are fantastic to quickly transform useless posts into ones that can illuminate your garden.

    These energy-saving lights will display the beauty of your outdoors at night. They will also help you find your way when the sun goes down. Many people are now going for solar lights.

    Solar energy is renewable, and you only need to make an onetime investment. The best solar lamp post lights come with great features, such as better brightness, performance, and waterproof material. They also have various features, modes, and levels of brightness.

    Some display a beautiful flickering effect, others have a motion detector. Wading through all the choices can be somehow tricky. We have the most reliable, efficient, and stylish solar post lights out there.

    What we like about these lights is that they are pleasing to the eye and reliable. It's different from the most pretentious solar lamp post out there. They designed to cast light in such a way that it illuminates without overwhelming.

    The design is simple enough to fit in with other lighting fixtures. So if you are looking to fill a gap in an already existing line of light, they work quite well. The run time of these solar post lights is fantastic.

    They easily make it through the night. In addition, using solar lighting can be a lifesaver when you do not have electric sockets outside. SOLAR LAMP POST LIGHTS COME WITH A CHOICE OF ONE, TWO OR THREE LANTERNS Each headlight fixture houses a solar LED bulb, which creates a bright and warm illumination.

    The LED and reflector are surrounded by beautiful beveled glass side panels. In addition to the solar panels and lithium rechargeable batteries that power the solar post lamps throughout the night, each post light features a photocell to sense dawn and dusk to turn on and off automatically. They are a beautiful addition to any outdoor decor.

    You can place them anywhere with no pre-existing utility service. It is imperative to install your solar post light in a location where the solar panels can collect maximum sunshine during the day. Before deciding on a spot, make sure shadows from trees and buildings are not obstructing the unit.

    Recharging time will vary depending on weather conditions. No charging will happen if the solar panel does not get direct sunlight. Once in a while, you will also need to remove debris, dust, and snow from the solar panels so the batteries can adequately recharge.

    When snow covers the solar post lights for an extended period, it is imperative to let the batteries recharge for approximately 6-7 hours. While solar post lights look similar at first, they are different in style, durability, and performance. Homeowners should consider several factors when choosing the best solar post lights for their property.

    The best solar post lamp delivers an output similar to that of an electric light bulb. Lumens indicate how bright the light is. As for looks, solar post lights are available in a wide variety of styles.

    Whether you fancy classic designs, Victorian, or modern-looking type, there's a light on the market that reflects your unique taste. You can also consider opting for flickering or motion-activated lights. Most solar lights on the market have LED (light-emitting diode) bulbs.

    LEDs tend to hold a longer charge. They are also brighter than incandescent or fluorescent lamps. You will find the maximum run time on the specifications sheet provided by the manufacturer.

    Most solar post lights shed a warm or cool white light. You can also find colored red, green, blue LEDs. HOW DO YOU FIX A SOLAR LAMP POST?

    Thanks to their construction and design, there is no need to stress-out for assembly and installation. Our solar post lights install easily and in no time. They come with all the essential hardware for mounting anywhere you choose where enough sunshine is available.

    We highly recommend securing the base of the solar post light. You should read the user manual carefully to get the best results from your purchase. WHAT IS THE BEST SOLAR LAMP POST?

    Beyond providing excellent lighting, brightness, and duration, Greenlytes solar post light fixtures have exceptional physical durability. The monocrystalline solar panel is weather-resistant, and the cleanable tempered glass guarantees long-lasting reliability. If you wish to create a warm and welcoming atmosphere to your outdoors at night-time, there are many lighting options available on the market.

    Maybe you should consider some solar post lights. They will also add an extra layer of security around your property. These lights will satisfy all your lighting requirements; besides, there is no utility bills or ongoing maintenance charges.

    On a full charge, most of these lights will keep your home lit up all night long. When darkness falls, a built-in sensor automatically turns the light on. The solar panels placed on the top sides of the fixture need to get plenty of sunshine during the day.

    As discussed, not all solar lamp posts are similar. Among their many characteristics and features, it's essential to acknowledge which one is best for you. Because of the blend of length and brightness, our solar-powered lamp posts cast light on large areas.

    That makes our lights unique since they combine high functionality with an appealing look. In addition to their superior design, solar panels are strategically located on top of the lanterns. This configuration enables the battery pack to get an optimal charge.

    The best solar lamp post is also highly rustproof and waterproof since the materials are of high quality. Solar cells receive sunshine throughout the day to charge the batteries, which later feed the LED at night. Since solar post lights are powered by the sun, they must be located in areas that get enough sun throughout the day.

    YOU GET WHAT YOU PAY FOR. The brightness of a solar post light depends on the amount of sunshine it is exposed to. It also depends on the quality of the solar panels, the type of LED, and the quality of the battery pack.

    These High-quality components are usually more expensive. To a certain degree, the more you are willing to spend on solar light, the better it will perform. They are perfect for anyone looking to retrograde an existing post light with an energy-saving, solar lamp head.

    We offer solar lights with different post-mounting options. We also carry a wide assortment of wall-mounted fixtures. Check also our best solar flood lights.

  • Gtx Solar Post Light 4 Pack

    Top 15 Best Solar Path Lights For Your Garden 2020 Updated Top 15 Best Solar Path Lights For Your Garden 2020 Updated 12 Best Solar Lamp Posts Reviewed And Rated In 2020 The Costco Connection March 2020 Costco Com Only Savings Top 15 Best Solar Path Lights In 2018 Reviews And Top Picks 12 Best Solar Lamp Posts Reviewed And Rated In 2020 Top 15 Best Solar Path Lights In 2018 Reviews And Top Picks

  • 10 Best Solar Post Lights 2021 - Solar Fence Post Cap Lights Reivews

    Everyone wants to see their compound well lit at night, especially for security purposes, as well as to see their home beautiful and elegant at all times. Besides, you want to save on power and also play a role in conserving the environment. The good news is that you can achieve all this by acquiring solar post lights.

    Unlike the traditional electricity-powered post lights, the solar ones serve you diligently without misusing your electricity. With most modern solar post lights being automated, you will not need to worry about switching them on and off. But how do you know the ideal solar lights?

    We have reviewed our top selections to help you choose the lights that will perfectly suit your needs. Kemeco has established itself as a leading maker of solar post lights. The lights from this company are rated highly in the market.

    These are some of the reasons we believe that the Kemeco ST4311AQ LED cast-aluminum solar post light is another great product. One of the primary features we like on this post light is gentle and white LEDs. The light also has an upgraded twelve high power SMD LED.

    You can upgrade the light to shine at 130-150 lumens, depending on where you live and the weather. We appreciate that the functions of this solar light are automated where it automatically turns on at dusk and off at dawn. You will just need to push the switch located beneath the solar panel.

    After a one time turning on, the light will be putting itself off and on. We also like that the light gets its power from 3x Ni-MH 2300mah batteries, which are rechargeable. The solar panel charges the batteries to ensure your garden or compound has proper light at all times.

    The light's body is made of aluminum, while the panels' making material is ripple glass. With these materials, you have the assurance of durability. You also have an easy time cleaning the light since these materials are straightforward to clean.

    Even though this light from Kemeco has many positive attributes, we have noted that it is heavier than most similar lights. The glass panels can also break easily if the light accidentally falls. Despite the few flaws on this solar post light, it is evident it has all the qualities to give you enhanced performance.

    You will enhance security in your compound without necessarily having to spend a lot. • Can work even on cloudy and rainy days • Comes with a three inches fitter base • Cannot be damaged by extreme weather conditions • Can only fit on specific holding posts • There are no color options Proper lighting in your compound gives you enhanced security and ease of going anywhere you want in your home, even at night. You can achieve adequate lighting for your garden by installing Gama Sonic GS-105FPW-BW Outdoor Solar Light in your compound.

    One of the primary attributes we like about this solar light is that it creates a 30% brighter light than similar lights. There is a cone reflector that assists in dispersing light more effectively in all directions. It produces a white light that illuminates everything around the lamp.

    You will not need to recharge the light since it operates exclusively on the sun's power. The solar panels charge the lithium-ion battery, which lasts up to ten hours when fully charged. You just need to position the light in a way it will receive direct sunlight.

    We also like the fact that the light is powerful, where it can illuminate 130 lumens. Being a pretty powerful light, you can see everything irrespective of weather. The light has a design meant to produce a powerful light even when the battery does not have maximum power.

    You can mount this light on an outdoor wall scone, a flat surface such as columns or pillars, and the top of a three-inch post. With these options, you do not have to change your garden or compound's landscape to mount the lamp. The only thing we are concerned about is that the light's body has brittle materials that can break if the lamp falls.

    We are also concerned about the battery's short life where the light might go off, especially during the long nights. Our opinion is that the light is an excellent addition to any compound that needs to be well lit, especially at night. You do not have to break the bank since the light goes for a reasonable price.

    • Can get damaged by too much wetness • Does not come with mounting pole Reliable lighting on your fence, backyard, or compound can be very beneficial. Security improves because you can see all corners of your compound. You do not even need power since there are reliable solar post lights such as solar post cap lights outdoor-4 pack LED fence post lights.

    The main attribute of these solar lights we like is total automation. High-tech technology senses whenever it's getting dark or when it is day time. Consequently, you do not have to keep on switching them on and off.

    We also like the fact that the lights come with powerful 1.2V AA Ni-MH 400mAh batteries. You do not have to incur the extra cost of purchasing rechargeable batteries. The solar panels charge these batteries on the top of the lights; therefore, there is no need to recharge.

    Inside the lights, there are internal reflectors that are useful in enhancing the efficiency of the lights. With these reflectors, you get the assurance that you will be getting optimum LED light to light your compound perfectly. The reflectors also ensure the light distribution is even.

    We have also noted that the lights are weather resistant. You do not have to worry about damages by too much sun or too much wetness. The top-notch and very durable materials used to make these durable lights make this possible.

    Our only concern about these lights is that their batteries last for only ten hours when fully charged. With this kind of range, the lights might not survive the entire night, especially on the days and seasons where it is minimal or no sunshine at all. Even with the few flaws, we can confidently endorse these modern lights.

    So, using your money to purchase them is a wise investment decision that will give you maximum value for what you spend. • Works on any kind of weather • Can only fit on posts of specific dimensions Top solar post lights such as the Moonrays post cap lamp provides you with the opportunity to light your compound while at the same time enhancing elegance. These are the solar lights that have the necessary power, and they have beautiful designs.

    First of all, you will enjoy the brightness of these lights, which produce LED light in seven lumens. These lights are six times brighter than conventional bulbs. With this kind of light, you can be sure to see anyone or anything that gets into your compound.

    We have noted the lights are very eco-friendly. They use AA NiCd batteries, which are charged by the solar panels, to ensure that nothing about the lights can negatively interfere with the environment. Bronze plastic and a metal frame are the materials used to make the body of the lights.

    There are also four beautifully stained glass lenses that play an integral role in beautifying your compound. These lenses are crafted carefully to ensure they stand out whenever you mount the lamps. We further like that the lights can perfectly fit on standard posts measuring 3.5 inches by 3.5 inches.

    You do not have to struggle to look for mounting posts since posts of this size are readily available. Wooden posts are ideal because if they are big, they can be adjusted to fit. Just like all mechanical items, these lights also have several flaws.

    The glass lenses divers some of the light, consequently reducing the light produced. We have also noted that the outer parts of the lights fade pretty quickly. Buying these lights is a big win for you, considering all the positive attributes of the lights.

    You will like the lights even more if you are a person who wants his/her compound to look optimally beautiful. • The lights are very eco-friendly • Comes in different colors Anyone who knows about solar lighting knows that the name Siedinlar is associated with quality. The reason behind this is that the company has been able to establish itself as a leader in this field by making quality products such as Siedinlar solar post lights.

    One of the features you will definitely like on these lights is that they have a unique design. The design includes elegant, looking shades and beautifully crafted decorative patterns. With this design, you can be sure that your entire compound will look stylish.

    We also like the fact that the lights produce 3000K warm white light. You can even use the lights to create a romantic atmosphere in your compound. The light distribution is even to ensure you can see even below the posts holding the lamps.

    During the wet and rainy seasons, you do not have to worry about the lights getting damaged. The materials used to make them are water-resistant, and the interior receives protection from waterproof glue. Your compound will always be well lit even when it is raining heavily.

    With these solar lights, you shall enjoy enhanced power-saving attributes. The lights do not have heat radiation, ultraviolet, or stroboscopic. All the energy provided by the batteries gets used to produce light without unnecessary wastages.

    When buying these lights, you just need to be aware that they can break easily if accidentally dropped. You also need to know that the lights cannot fit in posts of all sizes since they can only work on posts between 3.5 and 5 inches. All the positive attributes of these lights confirm that you can never go wrong by purchasing them.

    You will beautify your compound and, at the same time, keep the compound well lit. • Ability to absorb power even when it is cloudy Davinci is one of the most respected outdoor lights-making companies. The company concentrates on making top-quality lights that can meet the needs of the customer.

    Some of the products we like from the company are the Davinci premium solar LED post cap lights. We were first attracted to these lights from Davinci by the lights' ability to produce bright and warm 25 lumens of the LED light. With this kind of light, you are guaranteed clear and even vision throughout the night regardless of the weather.

    You will also like the ability of the lights to save energy and therefore conserve the environment. With the pure solar-powered operation, you can be sure that you will be playing your role in protecting the planet by using clean energy that does not have any adverse effects on the environment. We also like the automatic operations of the lights.

    Even if you are not home, the lights will automatically switch on at dusk and then switch themselves off at dawn. With this operation, you get peace of mind even when you are not at home. With these lights, you will not need to budget for replacements any time soon.

    Davinci has used durable and robust materials to make the lights. They will serve you diligently for years without even dropping the levels of brightness. All things with good attributes have several flaws, and the weaknesses of these lights include being unable to fit onto posts of specific sizes.

    You might also struggle to get spare parts if the lights break because their parts are not readily available. In our opinion, you need to get these lights if you would like to light your compound properly. With all the lights' positive features, you can be confident that you are making an informed investment decision.

    • Robust sensors to switch the lights on and off • You can install the lights without help • Can only last for about 8 hours The engineers and experts at NOMA work extra hard to make sure they make competitive products. The hard work is the main reason why the company is rated highly in the lighting market. Among the quality products that the company has made are the NOMA solar post lights.

    These outdoor solar lights come in a pack of six lights, which produce cool white LED light. The white light protects your eyes by illuminating different surfaces without creating harmful reflections. The LED technology also ensures the light is even around the light post.

    You also get enhanced performance from the lights where they use rechargeable AA NI-CD batteries. These batteries will serve you for years before you can start budgeting for replacements. Replacements are readily available, and therefore you will not struggle.

    The robust materials and a black finish on the lights enable them to withstand any kind of weather. It does not matter whether it is the sunny or rainy season since the lights will remain functional during all weather. Their beauty will also not be affected by any weather.

    When it comes to mounting the lights, you will not need to acquire specialized tools or help professionals. We have observed that installing these lights is simple, where you just need to have posts of the right size in the specific places where you want to mount the lights. The only issue we have with these lights is being bulkier than almost all the other outdoor solar lights.

    The weight requires that you have pretty strong posts to hold the lamps. You might also have a relatively more challenging time when mounting the lights. Overall we can recommend these lights to anyone who wants to get outdoor solar lights on a budget.

    With these lights in your compound, you will feel proud of welcoming visitors to your home. • Cannot be affected by any weather • Switching on and off is automated • Fits well on the supporting posts Home Zone is well known for manufacturing and designing top-quality lighting products. Among the most recognizable products from this company are the Home Zone security solar post cap tights.

    The main reason why these lights are so cherished is their outstanding features. You will be happy to know that the only thing you will need to enjoy these lights' benefits is the sun. The lights come with solar panels strategically placed on the top.

    You just need to mount the lights, and the sun will do the rest. The design of these lights will also impress you the way it has impressed us. We could not help but note how the beautiful design of the lights.

    If you love your compound to look optimally elegant, these are the ideal lights for you. We also recommend these lights from Home Zone because they come with an auto-on sensor. The lights will put themselves on at dusk and then switch themselves off at the break of dawn.

    The hustle of remembering to switch on your compound's lights will be a thing of the past. We also very much like the materials used to make these lights. The materials are carefully selected to ensure they provide waterproof ability while at the same time protecting the interior of the lights.

    You get an assurance of durability because of these materials. Even with these lights' good features, we noticed that they are a bit bulkier than other solar outdoor lights. The sophisticated design of the lamps mainly causes bulkiness.

    Consequently, you should be ready to have relatively big lamps on your compound or fence. Despite the few issues with these lights, we highly recommend them. Besides their bulkiness, we find all the other features to have met the modern market's standards.

    • You need to have posts of a specific size • Hard to be mounted on walls Clean energy is in the in thing, and you can be part of this way of conserving the environment through using solar powered outdoor lights. Some of the lights you can use on your fence or compound are the Twinsluxes fence post cap lights. One of the things we like about these lights is that they are very flexible.

    You do not need to have mounting posts of specific dimensions because the lights' design allows them to fit on posts of different sizes perfectly. We also like the fact that the lights produce uniform, warm, and cool LED lights. You do not have to bump into things while strolling in your compound at night since these lights provide you with a powerful light, which allows you to see everything around you.

    When it comes to reliability, the design of these powerful solar lights was meant to last. Their batteries can survive until morning, especially on sunny days, where the batteries get fully charged during the day. The lights work even on the days when there is no sunshine.

    Since most homeowners are not professional carpenters or technicians, the installation of the lights is made easier. Even if you have an office job or a stay-at-home mom, you will easily mount the lights without asking for help from anyone. The only issue with these lights is that the glass body can break easily if you accidentally drop the lights.

    The color on the lights also fades pretty quickly; they will start looking as if they are very old lights within months. Our verdict on these lights from Twinsluxes is that they are a suitable addition to your compound. You will not spend a lot, but the little you shall spend will be repaid through the many benefits you shall get from the lights.

    • Can fit in posts of different sizes • The metal housing makes them relatively heavy You have the power to decide how beautiful and secure your compound is. One of the ideal ways to secure and beautify your compound is using the right outdoor lights, such as the POWGDLT solar post cap lights outdoor 10 lumen double LED fence post lights. The main reason why you might like these particular lights is that they use the upgraded 4x140MA polycrystalline solar panels.

    These modern panels can trap power from the sun, even where it's cloudy, to make sure your home stays illuminated at all times. We are pleased to note that these lights are entirely weather-resistant. Even if they remain on your compound or fence for years, they will never be affected by excessive sunshine or wetness.

    For years you will not require to go shopping for replacement lights. The quality of light produced by these modern solar lights is superior compared to most similar post lights. We have noted that the lamps produce 3000k warm white light that illuminates every area around the lights, including the posts holding the lights immediately.

    We have also established that these lights come with everything needed for installation. You can purchase them and proceed to install them immediately. The only thing you might need is to keep them in the sun for a few hours before mounting.

    Our analysis found out that these lights are pretty big compared to similar lights because they have more components that require more significant structures. We have also noted that the lights do not have readily available parts in case they break. From all the positive attributes of these lights, we find them to have met modern outdoor solar lights' requirements.

    With these lights, you get the assurance that your compound has a light at night. • Can be mounted on posts of different sizes • No need to switch on and off • Come with all installation components. • Can last for more than ten hours every night What to consider before purchasing the best solar post lights Solar post lights have become increasingly popular in the recent past.

    With this increase in popularity, the number of companies making these lights has also increased. To make sure you get the ideal lights depending on your needs, we have highlighted several factors to consider whenever you are shopping for these lights. Besides enhancing security in your compound, you also want it to look beautiful and classy.

    The ideal way of achieving this is by selecting solar post lights that have a beautiful and attractive design. You can confirm the design by seeing the lights or their pictures before purchasing. Most solar post lights are designed in a way that they can only fit on posts of specific sizes.

    If you buy bigger or smaller lights, they will end up not fitting on your posts. All that you need is to know the exact dimension of your posts before shopping for the lights. Almost all modern solar post lights are automated where you do not have to switch them on or off.

    But still, there are some which are analog where you will be required to switch them on and off manually. You should specify that you are looking for automated lights to save yourself from the trouble of having to operate the lights manually. The average solar post lights last for about eight hours when fully charged.

    But there are others that can last longer or for a lesser time depending on the design. You do not want to be stuck with lights that will turn off in the middle of the night when you need them most. The best thing you need to do is to make sure you get the lights which can last the whole night.

    Everyone wants to purchase lights that will last for years without needing to be replaced. You can get such lights if you check the number of hours the lights are supposed to remain functional. The lights with more hours are designed to serve you for longer periods.

    The majority of the solar post lights manufacturers use weatherproof materials to make the lights. The reason behind this is that the lights stay outdoors, and as a result, they need to design in a way that cannot be affected by different kinds of weather. Make sure you carefully read the descriptions of the lights you choose to confirm they are weatherproof.

    Do I need an expert to install my solar post lights? In most cases, you can mount the lights on your own since they have simplified installation. But if you do not have the time or you install the lights and they fail to work, you can call an expert.

    Do solar post lights come with mounting posts? No, you need to get the mounting posts separately. How regularly should I clean my solar post lights?

    Most solar post lights are self-cleaning where they are cleaned by wind and rain. But to ensure they remain clean and functional, you can use a wet piece of cloth to wipe the lights every month. What kind of maintenance do solar post lights require?

    Cleaning is the only maintenance the solar post lights need. By cleaning the lights, you will be removing dust which might block the solar panels or the glass in which light passes. Can the solar post lights be mounted on any other place besides on posts?

    It depends on the lights you purchase. There are lights that are designed in a way they can be mounted even on walls and other flat surfaces. You can make inquiries and read descriptions to establish whether the lights you purchase can be mounted in any other place.

    After comparing the various solar post lights, we have selected Kemeco LED Cast Aluminum Solar Post Light as the best among the rest. These lights produce more than 130 lumens, which is pretty impressive. You also note that these lights are made using weather-resistant strong metals, consequently providing durability and safety.

    The pure-solar operation of the Davinci Premium Solar LED Post Cap Lights ensures you can save on electricity and, at the same time, conserve the environment. With automated processes, you are protected from the trouble of switching on the lights every evening and turning them off every morning.

  • 15W Best Solar Deck Post Lights for Parks Solar Lights on Top of Fence Post

    What are the advantages of 15W Best Solar Deck Post Lights for Parks 5000K Solar Lights On Top of Fence Post? 1. Replace conventional Area Lights 2.

    Precision Die Cast Aluminum Housing 3. Fade Resistant Powder Coat Finish 4. Easy Installation 5.

    CE ROHS listed What are the features of 15W Best Solar Deck Post Lights for Parks 5000K Solar Lights On Top of Fence Post? 1. Beam angle:120 degrees.

    2. Aluminum die-casting heat sinks is good for heat dissipation. 3.

    It's major to replace the conventiona area light. 4. Green, energy saving, long and reliable life of 50,000 hours.

    5. No RF interference, No IR/UV radiation ,no mercury pollution. 6.

    Wide colour availability in degrees Kelvin(K),2700-6700K. 7. Streamline exterior design, beautiful appearance.

    8. Environment friendly ,energy saving (70~80%). 9.

    Special circuit design, each LED work separately, avoiding the single broken LED influence problem. What are the applications of 15W Best Solar Deck Post Lights for Parks 5000K Solar Lights On Top of Fence Post? 1.Area roadway/roadway lighting.

    2.Parking areas lighting. 3.Airports lighting. 4.Streetscapes lighting.

    5.Campuses lighting. FAQs Q1. Can I have a sample order for led light?

    How to order samples? A1: Yes, we welcome sample order to test and check quality. Mixed samples are acceptable.Send inquiry at alibaba,we will contact with you,and send you quotation.

    Q2.What is your payment term?Can you accept the Credit Card? A2:We accept payment by Alibaba / TT / Western Union / Paypal / Visa.We accept payment by credit card.

    Q3. What about the lead time? A3:Sample needs 1-5 days, mass production time needs 1-2 weeks for order quantity more than 8000pcs.

    Q4. Do you have any MOQ limit for led light order? A4: Low MOQ, 1pc for sample checking is available.

    Q5.What are the temperture color you can provide? A5:We can provide 2700K SW / 3000K WW / 4100K NW / 5000K DW / 5700K CW / 6500K SCW. Q6.

    How do you ship the goods and how long does it take to arrive? A6: We usually ship by DHL, UPS, FedEx or TNT. It usually takes 3-5 days to arrive.

    Airline and sea shipping also optional. Q7. How to proceed an order for led light?

    A7: Firstly let us know your requirements or application. Secondly we quote according to your requirements or our suggestions. Thirdly customer confirms the samples and places deposit for formal orders.

    Fourthly We arrange the production. Q8. Is it OK to print my logo on led light product?

    A8: Yes. Please inform us formally before our production and confirm the design firstly based on the sample. Q9: Do you offer guarantee for the products?

    A9: Yes, we offer 3-5 years warranty to our products. Q10: How to deal with the faulty? A10: Firstly, Our products are produced in strict quality control system and the defective rate will be less than 0.2%.

    Secondly, during the guarantee period, we will send new lights with new order for small quantity. For defective batch products, we will repair them and resend them to you or we can discuss the solution i ncluding re-call according to real situation.

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A Look at the World's Best Best Street Solar Lights
A Look at the World's Best Best Street Solar Lights
The introduction of best street solar lightsIn the olden days, people would buy their own power from the sun and take it to the grid. Nowadays, we use our own money to build new roads and connect them to our electric cars. The world is getting cheaper and better with every passing day. People are going to need more energy efficient lighting systems and these will help us save money on electricity bills. If you want to have a good place to live then you need to invest in solar lights.Street solar lights are one of the most cost effective solutions to reduce energy bills in the world. People can now install solar lights in their homes without using any electricity. They can use them to create beautiful gardens, relax in the sunshine and enjoy the day's activities. This is an easy way to save money on electricity bills and improve the quality of life in the city. You can also buy solar lights online from Solar Direct.If you are looking for a new light source then you should check out the list of the best street solar lights. There are many types of street lights, but there are also some that use LEDs and some that use batteries. You can buy street lights from different companies in the market. The main difference between these two types of street lights is that they use electricity rather than water. They use an electric battery to keep them running for long periods of time. It also uses less gas and requires less electricity than other types of lights.No one can predict what will happen to the world if we do not change our minds about what is happening to the world. We can start by reading about solar street lights and know what they are supposed to do. A good guide would be to check out the following website and learn about their uses. The internet has made it possible to understand how we live in a world that is far from perfect. When we have learned about solar street lights, we are more likely to understand the principles of solar street lights.The product instructions of best street solar lightsFor years now, there have been lots of talk about how to install solar street lights in homes and businesses. The main focus of solar street lights is to use energy efficient bulbs that are rated at 10v and consume less than 50% of their energy. Solar street lights can also save you up to 30% on your electricity bills. Solar street lights can also be used to protect your property from harmful UV rays. It is very important to choose the right light that will help you get through your day.It is difficult to tell how good a quality street light can be from a simple battery charge. It is very easy to find and get good service at the local hardware store. The problem is that it is not always possible to make sure that the battery lasts for as long as possible. This is because most people will have trouble charging their batteries in the first few hours of use. However, if you can find the right one then you will be happy with the results.You need to make sure that the LED bulb has a high quality and efficient light. This will help you to control the light from the source to get the best results in the most efficient way. To do this, use the LEDs as an illumination source. The LEDs are also easier to replace than regular incandescent bulbs. You can even turn them on when you want to be out of the house or just sit back and relax.Street solar lights are one of the most efficient energy saving ways to improve your home. With many types of solar lights, it is difficult to determine which type of solar lights you need. They can be purchased online or by phone. There are several different types of solar lights and some are called street lights. These solar lights can be used to save electricity in the night and also to provide an alternative to incandescent lights. It is important to choose the right type of solar lights because it is very easy to make and also they can last a long time.How to maintain best street solar lightsStreet lights are becoming more and more popular with both hobbyists and homeowners. There are several kinds of street lights, some of which are very efficient and others which are very complicated. It is important to make sure that the type of light that is used for the most part is being used correctly. If the type of light used for the most part is not working properly then it is time to replace the light bulbs or turn them on again. This is a good way to save money and you can install solar street lights in your home.When you install solar lights, it will take about 5 minutes to set up and use. However, when you install solar lights, it will take about 1 minute to set up and install them. There are some things that you can do to ensure that your solar lights are running properly. If you have been using solar lights for years, you will know how to maintain them properly. When you install solar lights, it will take about 1 minute to set up and install them. You can check how many hours it takes to set up and install solar lights at your home.It is very important to have good lighting systems in your house. If you have poor lighting then you need to install them properly. There are several types of solar lights and some of them can be controlled using an app called Solar Parking System. You can use these lights to add more energy to your home or business. It is really easy to set up and manage your own solar lights and use them to turn on the lights when needed. They are available in various shapes and sizes and they can be adjusted by a single user.Tips for buying best street solar lightsAs with any other kind of lighting, there are some things that you should do before you buy any kind of lighting. A good way to find out about the type of lighting is to read reviews and write about the lighting in question. You can ask your questions about the lighting and they will give you an idea of what kind of lighting you want. When you buy a lighting that is appropriate for your needs, you will be much more likely to get the best results.The latest and best solar lights are available in different shapes and sizes. We can also add to the image of the sun by adding a few LEDs and they will light up the whole night sky. So there are many types of solar lights, but we will choose the one that suits our needs best. And there are many other options that we can choose from, but here are some of the most popular options that we can choose from.It is important to make sure that you get the best deals possible. It is not just about what type of light to buy, but also what kind of lighting you are looking for. When it comes to buying the best street lights, it is always important to look at the products available on the market. They can help you decide on the type of light that you want and how much to spend. This will be helpful for you to know what type of light you want.Getting the best price for solar lights is very important. There are many different types of solar lights and they all have different styles and we will be providing a complete guide on how to choose the best solar lights for you.I bought my first house last year and it's still there. It's not always easy to find the right house to buy, but if you're looking for a good deal then I recommend checking out their website. They have great suggestions on how to make sure they are really helpful and can be found on their website. There are many good options out there, but I recommend checking out their site because they have some great tips on how to make sure they are really helpful.
Smart Solar Street Light Applications for Cities and Municipalities
Over the last decade or so, you may have heard a lot about the many different applications of solar street lights.When you think about it, the locations fit for solar street lights are not as limited as many would suggest. People perceive limitations in solar street light applications caused by weather conditions (lack of sun) and shading. However, the introduction of smart technology and the sheer amount of under performing outdoor lighting units together with remote areas without lights increase the potential for installation of new solar street lights or solar retrofitting.With the ongoing smartification of cities by applying new energy efficient technologies, implementation of green urban design projects and increasing demand for energy savings you can always find a diverse range of potential applications for solar powered street lights (such as public parking lots, parks, sidewalks, squares, city districts, roads, bicycle lanes and many other).As with any renewable energy product that comes onto the scene, customers are chiming in with, "Will it function longer and better than other street lights? How to achieve ROI and energy savings in the shortest period possible?"The short answer is: "Absolutely". The longer answer? Read on to find out what are some of the main urban applications of smart solar street lights (and be sure to follow Lightinus on Facebook and Twitter for more info on this topic!).SMART SOLAR STREET LIGHTS: LONG-TERM COST SOLUTION FOR CITIESCities, Municipalities and Urban Planning Departments dwell on energy efficiency, effective transportation and communication, waste management, security and high quality of public services for citizens. In this regard, the implementation of Smart City Initiatives is perfectly aligned with the benefits that smart solar street lights bring to the table. Introduction of intelligent technology in combination with clean energy sources results in long-term sustainability and improved public services. Modernizing street lighting infrastructures is part of many successful Smart City Projects: read the following article on 6 cities that achieved significant improvements through smart technology and green energy practices.Today, we still have over 300 million traditional street light installations which generate high energy cost and are highly inefficient, do not deliver reliable illumination, require high maintenance and high installation cost and produce CO2 emissions. The opportunity cost of not improving public street lighting infrastructures is rising exponentially. To illustrate, 33% of all European street lights still use standards developed in the 1930s, which require costly on-site maintenance and allocation of lots of resources. According to a pilot research at city level in North America taking into account 190,000 traditional street lights, given that sodium bulbs have a life span of 5 years, the replacement and maintenance cost for each bulb is 330 USD, which means that on average the city replaces 38,000 lamps per year. The total maintenance cost for this activity amounts to 12.5 million USD per annum.Can you imagine the savings that could be accomplished by solar retrofitting or installing smart solar street lights (either completely off-grid or solar/on-grid) in urban areas? Actually, we can calculate energy savings from using solar street lights based on the following information about your existing street light network:Purchase Price per poleInstallations Cost per poleAverage Electricity Cost per yearAverage Maintenance Cost per yearSMART SOLAR STREET LIGHTS: LED AND CLEAN ENERGY FOR BOOSTING SAVINGSTraditional street lights are expensive, typically consuming about 40% of a city's total electricity costs. Switching to LED street lights with remote control systems can provide the same amount of lighting ( even better) at just a fraction of the energy used, while decreasing significantly the maintenance costs. Solar LED street lights on the other hand, facilitate even more the energy efficiency case for cities. They can provide the same features as grid tied LED street lights plus limitless clean energy power that will further reduce the energy costs at city level. To read more on the differences between traditional and solar street lights read this blog.The City of Barcelona achieved 30 percent energy savings by implementing smart technology across their urban lighting system. Light on demand is the key concept in generating energy savings and increasing the optimization of your solar system. Dimming the light from 100% to 50% in late hours during the night, can make a huge difference in millions of euros from increased energy efficiency. Motion sensors make sure that when someone walks by the street light, the LED light is again at 100% for couple of minutes. Reduction in wasting energy for light is as important as preserving other precious resources.Just as with any economies of scale scenario, it is a game of numbers - as the number of smart solar street light installations increases over the city area, the percentages of energy savings will increase and the maintenance costs will decrease. Also, in areas without access to electric grid networks, the installation cost of new solar street light is much lower than the cost of extending the grid access for conventional street lights.REMOTE MONITORING AND CONTROL: MAKING LIFE EASIER FOR URBAN OPERATORSRemote management system is the key to always knowing what is going on with each component of your off-the-grid solar lighting system. With no remote monitoring tools in place, you would always have to send a technician to check each unit on-site and you will never have in-depth information in real-time on your system status. The better monitoring and control you have of your solar lighting system, the more savings you will have from free clean energy.With optimized solar LED street lighting system you will experience economies of scale of light performance and higher reliability than traditional street lights, better illumination, decreased maintenance costs (no need to replace bulbs and allocate resources for expensive on-site system checks) no CO2 emissions, free energy, remote control and monitoring functions that will boost your ROI. Over a 15 year period, smart solar street lights can generate combined savings (including free energy generation, energy savings through optimization and increased light performance as well as reduced maintenance costs) between 1500-2000 USD per street light unit. These economic benefits are followed by modernizing your public lighting infrastructure, streamlining the work of urban operators and decreasing the city's CO2 emissions. Everything you need to know about how to increase solar street light performance and reliability is available here.REDUCED CO2 EMISSIONSTake the following fact into consideration as well. The use of electricity to drive conventional outdoor lighting leads to production of carbon dioxide. If global traditional street lights were converted to solar street lights, this would reduce global electricity consumption for lighting by more than 52%, avoiding 735 million tons of CO2 each year. The Paris Climate Agreement is seriously tackling such issues and cities are the biggest greenhouse gas emitters.DECISION MAKING: TIPS BEFORE CONSIDERING SMART SOLAR STREET LIGHTSHere you can find the most important questions and details that may help you save money and improve your decision making process when implementing solar street light project. You need to know all the positive and negative aspects of the solar LED lighting system, how it functions and how smart technology can ensure performance reliability and cost efficiency over the product lifetime. Asking the right questions to your solar street light provider is crucial!IMPROVING URBAN LIFE: SMART SOLAR STREET LIGHT DIVERSE APPLICATIONSPublic street lighting is a valuable resource with long-term implications for urban areas. Below are the potential applications of smart solar street lights for cities and municipalities. Implementing state-of-the-art solar powered street light accelerates the use of intelligent technology and clean energy across many sectors.Smart Solar Street Lighting Applications:Public Parking LotsParksChildren PlaygroundsSidewalksSquaresCity DistrictsBicycle LanesBus StationsSchools and UniversitiesAdministrative Office AreasRoadsAfter reading this blog, do you think that smart solar street lights can improve urban infrastructures and provide better public services? Let us know your thoughts in the comments section.Originally published at blog.lightinus.com.·RELATED QUESTIONWhy don't hotel rooms have ceiling lights?My hotel building is over 100 years old, so we have ceiling lights. We also need a ladder to change a bulb 11' from the floor. It can take 20 minutes for 1 bulb! This is one reason that we have changed to the longer lasting (and more economical) low-energy bulbs.I would be delighted to have wall lights instead. Retro-fitting them would however be even less economically sound.Higher than average ceilings mean ladders to change the bulbs in ceiling fittings, and this extends the maintenance time and convenience for staff enormously. Even normal height ceilings mean that a chair is needed to swap a bulb out. Wall fittings are so much more convenient for both staff and customers, reducing the time taken to get light again!As Michael Forrest Jones says - anything other than a simple bulb swap requires the power to be cut to the whole circuit (which may be more than just a few rooms). This makes it very awkward to do emergency repairs after dark! -- Been there done that... Go with wall fittings that can be isolated in-room!In short:I have ceiling lights.I don't like them, as they are awkward for maintenance.Replacing them would be expensive and extremely difficult - basically a total rewire of the hotel lighting system.Design engineers are not stupid. they note the first 2 points!
Solar Street Light Maintenance Instructions
How to install the device : Solar Street Light Induction Solar Street Light User Manual-HY-SW108 Solar Street Light for use of illumination with excellent energy-saving function Specifications: Product Name Motion Sensor Solar Light Solar Panel s 5V 3.2W Accumulator Lithium iron phosphate battery 3.2V 4500mAh Max Voltage panels is closely related to local weather, 3.65V Mini Voltage 2.65V Solar systems require little maintenance as compared to other electric systems such as diesel generators; however, they are not maintenance free. This document provides instructions on performing preventative maintenance on major components of a solar PV system: 1. Battery 2. Solar Panels 3. Charge Controller 4. Inverter 5. Wiring and connections Troubleshooting Methods and Maintenance Guide Product Packaging High Power LED Streetlight Model SP90 the traditional concept of road and street lighting. Creating a new concept of road lighting, guiding solar energy resources, electricity and solar power can also be combined. 60w led solar street light with flexible solar panels. usa sunpower high efficiency solar cells. unique design solar light as well as high quality. osyea new design 30w led lamp solar garden street light high quality. led solar lawn-bollard light with dimmable. economical but good quality solar wall light. Our EnviroLight solar street light which integrates the efficient solar panel, LED light and the Li-Fe battery into a single product. It operates with human intelligence induction system to become the solution of low-energy, durable, high-luminance and free maintenance. Purpose: Our EnviroLight solar street light which integrates the efficient solar panel, LED light and the Li-Fe battery into a single product. It operates with human intelligence induction system to become the solution of low-energy, durable, high-luminance and free maintenance. Purpose: In high brightness days it should be able to fully charge much larger cells. Most cheap solar lights use AAA cells that are rated at 200 mAh. You can go much higher current rating than that. You can even put AA sized NiCAD cells inside most solar light housings to increase charge capacity. High-Intensity LEDs are available from many Ebay vendors. Solar street light Instruction Manual 1 Breif: Our integrated solar street light which integrates the green-energy parts solar panel, LED lamp and the Li-Fe battery into a single product, is with human intelligence induction system to gain the solution of low-energy, long-time, high-luminance and free maintenance. solar street light solar aluminium housing smd3030 ip65 solar street lighting 150w 200w led solar hot products 2020 solar street lights die cast pathway light. us $14.50-$18.50 / watt. 60.0 super bright 2700k-6000k area lighting 20w 60pcs cob led 150w solar led streetlight with sensor maido.co.ke with remote control & pir motion sensor. us $3.70-$5.20 In high brightness days it should be able to fully charge much larger cells. Most cheap solar lights use AAA cells that are rated at 200 mAh. You can go much higher current rating than that. You can even put AA sized NiCAD cells inside most solar light housings to increase charge capacity. High-Intensity LEDs are available from many Ebay vendors. Work and maintenance manual to help: Besides the choice in brand will matter to make sure the onsite services for the lights installed are delivered, clear instructions in the manual on mounting, operation, regular maintenance and troubleshooting of the Solar lightning given will be a great help too. LED Street Light Pole Installation Procedure There are 6 in stallation procedures of led street lamp pole for your reference.. 1, Subgrade Excavation. Firstly, we contact with the departments of the pipeline to understand the approximate distribution of underground cables, and knowing the detailed division of underground pipelines through excavation channels. How To Clean Solar Lights? - The Solar Advantage 6/30/2017· Solar lights are exposed to the environment, and require regular maintenance in order to ensure that they continue to operate at their best. Solar lights will become dirty as a result of being outside, and over time will accumulate debris that will reduce the ability for solar lights to …What causes light to refract?The reason for refraction is the different speed of light in different media. This speed is determined by the refractive index $n$, which in turn can be calculated from the relative permittivity and permeability of the material:$$n = sqrtvarepsilon_r mu_r$$These constants simply define the response of a material to an electric or magnetic field. Light (being made up of $E$ and $H$ fields) is not interacting with itself, but rather with the material it is transmitted through. So, here it is more useful to look at light in the classical picture as an electromagnetic wave, and not as photons
Why Solar Lights Manufacturers Is the Better of the Other
Why Solar Lights Manufacturers Is the Better of the Other
The introduction of solar lights manufacturersWith more than 50% of the world's energy consumption comes from solar energy. This means that it is much easier to install solar lights than to use traditional light bulbs. It also means that they can be safely stored and stored away from heat sources like street lamps and lanterns. In fact, it is possible to buy solar lights at an all-in-one discount.If you have any doubt about the design of solar lights then we recommend that you look at their company website.It is no secret that there are some very good solar lights in the market, but if you are considering buying solar lights then there are a lot of companies that sell them, and it is easy to see why so many people choose to use solar lights. They are usually small and light weight, but they also have a range of features that make them suitable for most homes. They also have an option for women who want to make their home as comfortable as possible.It is always good to know what kind of energy source you are looking for. Most solar lights have very long batteries and are generally smaller than most incandescent lights. If you are looking for a cheap energy source then solar lights are the best choice. You can buy solar lights online from any place in the world. It is also great to have solar lights that can be attached to your garden or on your roof.This article discusses solar lights. Solar lights are basically just another way of lighting lamps. They are used to make light bulbs and turn them on in the night. A solar light bulb can be turned on by placing a watt of electricity in the bulb and when the bulb is lit, the energy stored in the bulb goes into the bulbs. This means that the energy stored in the bulbs will be enough to power the bulbs for a year. If the bulb is not lit, the energy stored in the bulbs will be gone.Tips for choosing solar lights manufacturersSolar lights manufacturers are very reliable and they provide many different types of solar lights. If you want to get solar lights from your home then you need to check their specifications. Solar lights manufacturers also provide different kinds of solar lights, so you need to make sure that they have good quality and they also provide good prices. There are many types of solar lights, so you need to make sure that they have good quality and they also provide good prices. There are many types of solar lights, so you need to make sure that they have good quality and they also provide good prices.A lot of solar lights manufacturers use low-power lithium ion batteries for their products. When they are using high-power lithium ion batteries, they use less energy than conventional batteries. In order to be able to produce a sufficient amount of electricity, they need to have enough space for their battery. When using lithium ion batteries, they need to be rated at 25V and that is why they are known as lithium ion batteries. These batteries can last up to 15 years and will not require any regular maintenance. This makes them ideal for people who want to buy solar lights.Solar lights manufacturers are known as solar lights. They are commonly used in industrial buildings, commercial buildings, homes and many other places in the world. Solar lights manufacturers have also been known to make energy efficient by improving the quality of their products. Solar lights manufacturers have been around for many years and it is always an exciting time to be a solar lights manufacturer. If you are interested in buying solar lights then please visit www.solar lights.com.Led solar lights manufacturers are some of the best in the market. They have good durability and low cost, so they are suitable for most homes and businesses. These solar lights can also be used to help you with your home's heating bills. You can choose from different types of solar lights to provide a lot of light that will last you a long time. This type of solar lights also come in a variety of shapes and sizes, so you can choose the one that suits your needs best.How to use solar lights manufacturers?Solar lights are becoming more and more popular. These solar lights are typically powered by solar batteries and these batteries can be turned on or off at will. They can also be used to add value to your home and business. Solar lights are very similar to incandescent lights, so they have some advantages over traditional light bulbs. Solar lights are cheaper than incandescent lights and you can save money on electricity bills by buying them separately. If you want to save money on electricity bills then solar lights are the best choice. You can choose from several different types of solar lights, so you can choose the best one for you.Most of the time people are unaware of the technology that they use and how to use it. Solar lights are an energy efficient way to light up a room or a house and you can get some out of your electricity bill. It's called solar lights because they can turn on any type of light bulb, so you can see all the different colors of the sun in the sky. When you turn on the light bulb, it will start flashing yellow and green, and then it will brighten up as you move closer to the sun.There are two main types of solar lights. One is used by homeowners who own their own homes and have children. Another is used by home builders who want to build a home in their backyard. It is very important to choose the right type of solar lights and make sure that they are rated on a good basis. A good solar lights manufacturer will give you a quote for the project and if you have any questions, please contact us.Led solar lights manufacturers have been around for years and their successes are only beginning to change. However, there are some great products that have been used in a way that has made them a popular choice for people who want to be able to get out of their home without needing to hire a contractor. All you need to do is get your own solar lights and install them on your property. The more you learn about solar lights, the better you will be in the long run.The specifications of solar lights manufacturersWe all know that there are many kinds of solar lights, but there are many more types of solar lights. If you want to have a good looking light then it is best to get one from the company and compare their products. Solar lights can provide a bright light that will make your eyes see you and your surroundings better. They can be installed in a variety of ways and they can be found in different shapes and sizes. It is best to choose the best solar lights for your needs.Led solar lights manufacturers have worked very hard to ensure that they are doing their best to meet the latest and greatest standards for solar lights. There are some companies that provide good solar lights, but most of the people who do not have a lot of money to make do with solar lights will still be paying their fair share of money to get solar lights installed on their property. This is because they are also known as solar lights and it is important to know what kind of solar lights are used in your home and what type of solar lights are used for.Solar lights are used by about 25% of the world's energy. With more than $500 billion invested in solar lights now, it is estimated that around 50% of all electricity will be generated by solar lights. The rest will come from batteries, which are smaller and lighter than fossil fuels. Most of the world's renewable energy comes from solar power. So if you want to save money on your electricity bills then solar lights are the best choice. Solar lights can help you save money on your electricity bills by replacing your old ones with solar lights.Solar lights are actually very light and energy efficient. They have an efficiency of about 80% and can save you about $1,000 per year on your electricity bills. Solar lights are becoming more and more popular because they have higher efficiency and they are usually made from lighter materials. You can choose from several different types of solar lights, including outdoor solar lights, nighttime solar lights, and battery solar lights. These solar lights can be purchased in various shapes and sizes and are a great way to make sure that you get the best deal on your purchase.The application of solar lights manufacturersThe benefits of solar lights are endless. It is easy to find them online and in most cases they are extremely popular. If you have any doubt about what the benefits of solar lights to your property then contact us and we will give you a test drive of your solar lights. You can get a quote online or call us on 01879 7445 today. Our team will help you understand the options available and make sure you understand the difference between a solar lights and a solar lights.If you have ever seen a picture of a solar light on your property, you would know how it works. The energy we use to produce our light and then use that energy to heat our homes can be reduced by using solar lights. There are two types of solar lights, traditional and solar street lights. Both types of solar lights use lithium ion batteries to generate electricity. These lights use batteries to power our electrical devices. They also use batteries to run our phones and computers.If you are interested in getting solar lights into your home then make sure you get a good deal. The more energy you use, the better your home will be. Most of the time, solar lights will have a problem with overheating and water that can build up in your system. It is also important to note that there are many types of solar lights, so it is important to check what kind of solar lights you have and how much they cost. Also, if you have any questions about solar lights then ask your local Solar Street Lights team.Solar lights are an environmentally friendly way to light up your garden. They can be made from renewable energy and have a lifespan of around 100 years. It is easy to install and it has low energy consumption. The cost of solar lights is just as important as the profit you make. Solar lights can save you money in the long run because they last longer and can also help you save on electricity bills if you use them correctly. If you are considering buying solar lights then it is good to check their reviews. You can get a quote online and compare their options.
The Best Way to Rebuild Nepal? Support Local Women
Meet Kala Katiwada, a 47-year-old woman living in Kalleri village in Dhading, a district less than 40 miles from the epicenter of the first earthquake that struck Nepal on April 25th.Kala and her extended family of six each live on less than $1 U.S. a day, from income earned by farming the steep, terraced fields around their home. Kala's husband, Ram Hari Katiwada, is seriously ill and cannot work.Just 13 days before the first earthquake, Kala had finished a weeklong training workshop to start her own business bringing solar light and mobile chargers to her rural community. She had just become the sixteenth clean energy entrepreneur to join a women-led solar distribution network in Nepal run by the social enterprise, Empower Generation.Kala knew communities like hers -- those heavily reliant on toxic, expensive and inefficient light sources like kerosene, torches and candles -- would benefit tremendously from access to solar products. She had no idea, however, just how important these lights would become in the aftermath of the devastating earthquakes.When the first earthquake hit Nepal, Kala was working in the fields. The rest of her family was at home. Luckily they all managed to escape unharmed, but their entire village was destroyed, with many casualties and hardly any homes left standing. The army came a few days later to collect bodies and then they were gone, leaving the community wondering when help would arrive.Being a resourceful entrepreneur, Kala knew she had to take charge rather than wait around for aid that might never come. She had a connection -- Chanchala Dhakal from Empower Generation and, as aftershocks swept the country day and night, both women understood the importance of to bringing reliable light to displaced survivors.Together Kala and Chanchala made a plan to mobilize their network's resources on the ground to provide immediate help.Chanchala soon arrived in Kala's village with 2,000 solar lights and mobile phone chargers from the network's existing stock, as well as other donated goods from communities where sister entrepreneurs live. This was the first aid of any kind to reach Kala's community, as they were yet to receive support from government or international relief agencies. It was at this moment Kala led her village to make a critical decision about the much-needed supplies.While the situation in Kala's village was undeniably dire, there was another village of extremely impoverished people, known in the caste system as Dalits ("untouchables") that was in even more desperate need. Kala and her fellow villagers decided to embark on a four-hour hike, bringing supplies intended for them and their families to their less fortunate neighbors.Reflecting on this moment Kala says, "The most important thing for me is to able to distribute the lights to the people equally. This gratifies me to the fullest. Meanwhile, we have to reach out to many more people who still haven't received the power of solar." Despite having lost her home, sleeping in a tent, in a community without access to clean water, electricity or food markets, Kala is working tirelessly to seize the opportunity to build her fledgling energy business while helping to rebuild her country. By distributing clean energy, a valuable resource to survivors, she is establishing a local market for her products, recruiting sales agents from villages across Dhading and neighboring districts, and introducing herself as an unstoppable force of change.With unfailing optimism she says, "This devastating earthquake came as an enormous hurdle, but I can't complain, as it has given me an opportunity to take up the challenge of testing my own capabilities of providing service to the people in my community by all possible means." Chanchala Dhakal, a Program Coordinator, lives in Kathmandu. When the earthquake happened she remembers she was in her living room laughing with her husband and two teenage children. Suddenly the floor began to sway, and they ran to their balcony just as two bookcases crashed down where they had been sitting.The next day Chanchala bravely navigated rubble, gaping roads, and aftershocks, to help set up a solar powered charging station for relief workers at her office in Lazimpat. Joined by two colleagues and her children, Chanchala visited temporary hospitals and emerging tent cities, distributing solar lights she had managed to retrieve.Chanchala describes the earthquake and its aftermath in harrowing detail, and admits she still feels scared. However, in the face of these terrifying events her selfless instinct has been not only to protect her family, but also to help as many of her fellow Nepalis as she can. Since the first earthquake, Chanchala has travelled to Kavre, Nuwakot, Dhading (Kala's district), and Gorkha, helping distribute solar lights and mobile chargers that have helped around 50,000 people."People love the lights. They are very necessary. At night it can be dangerous and light also helps keep thieves away. Solar light is the only light safe enough for people living in tents, as candles are unsafe because of fire danger. It is very hard for these people because their homes are gone, or they need to be demolished because they are too unsafe to live in." Chanchala describes that families in the tents gather around their solar lights. She says people are leaving Kathmandu and returning to their home villages, or anywhere they can help. In a way, she believes this is a chance for the people of Nepal to reflect and prioritize what is really important.It is also a chance for the world to reflect; to recognize women like Kala and Chanchala prove the advantages of enabling local people in their own efforts to rebuild after a disaster and, empowered by opportunity, women can lead a cleaner, more resilient energy future.Empower Generation is a social enterprise operating in Nepal since 2011 that starts and supports women-led businesses distributing clean energy solutions. Chanchala and Kala continue to lead a project distributing donated lights, chargers and water filters, in coordinated response as part of the larger solar relief effort.
Outdoor Solar Lights - Not Working?
I would take a good look at the instructions again. If one light failed, it might be bad, but not all of them. Be sure to put the lights out where direct sun will shine on them for most of the day.1. Where can I find outdoor deck materials fromThere are many places that sell outdoor deck materials due to the growing popularity of outdoor living. The best stores to try would be Lowes and. Home Depot.. Both of these stores have a very good inventory and price points for deck materials.2. Should I Spay My Outdoor Cat?Let's see... Unspayed = Loads of unwanted kittens Risk for all kinds of reproductive cancers Weeks of yowling when she's in heat Emergency c-sections when the babies get stuck in the birth canal Attracting every male cat within a 5 mile radius Wandering off at every possible opportunity to get laid Spayed = $40 Some stitches A clean conscience for you I do not know, it's really a toss-up.3. This is a outdoor carpentry question?Try using MINWAX 2 part wood filler. It's the same as BONDO, and actually made by them. It's the best I have used, and I have used a lot of them over the years4. keeping outdoor rabbits warm during winter?You need to keep the hutch dry and prevent them from being exposed to the elements. If there is a side that is open, face it toward a wall or at least in a direction that is away from the wind/snow etc. A cover to prevent snow and rain is also good, but you need to make sure that it allows air flow. A thermal cover probably is not needed unless it gets really cold, a regular blanket should work. Inside the hutch, you can use lots of straw so they can burrow in to. Most hutches have a sleeping box area (fully enclosed) that you can stuff with hay. A large box can also work. You may need to feed them more during the winter. They burn more calories keeping warm. How much you give will depend on them and how cold it gets. You should increase the feed slowly, over about 1 week, so they can get used to the increased amount. Make sure they have lots of hay too, not just straw. You will need to make sure they have fresh water. Bottles can freeze. There are some things you can put over the bottle to keep it from freezing, but a few layers of socks can work too. You should have extra bottles so you can swap them out if they do freeze. A bowl of water can be used, but you need to be careful with lop breeds and wire floors (rabbits can get frozen to the cage). Check on your rabbit several times a day to make sure they have food, water and are doing well. You should not bring them inside of it gets really cold. The drastic change in temperature can be dangerous. If you do feel you need to get them out of the cold, a garage (unheated), shed or other building can work. If you decide to keep them inside, you need to do it slowly so they can get used to the change. Try to do in on a nice day when the temperature is similar inside and out, bring the rabbit into the coolest part of the house. Rabbits do better in the cold than the heat. As long as they can get out of the elements and stay dry them should be fine. If it gets really cold, then you will need to take extra precautions. Make sure they have food and water and check on them often.5. have on outdoor clothes/outerwearA useful phrasal verb is to dress up, which is used when people put on formal or fancy clothing for a special occasion. Despite containing the word dress, it is not exclusively associated with the female garment that's also called a dress; a man can dress up in a suit and tie. An example of this phrasal verb in context:Are you wearing those shorts to dinner, or do you plan to dress up? Often, people are said to be all dressed up once they have put on those clothes, so the phrase you were constructing in your question could look like this:. ..all dressed up because you and your immediate family are eating out.The phrase dress up has a second, closely related meaning: it's used when children put on an outfit for fun or to pretend to be someone they are not. In this sense, it can also be a noun: "The little girl was playing dress-up with her mother's clothes. ".
Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf
Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ahi need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooeyWhat can you do with dried figs?Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%wat can i do with figs?I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural formwhen is the best time to prune a fig tree?Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be dormant...no further growth or leaf pruductionWhat does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...if i ate dried figs all day?that is a alot of fiber lolEdible unclonable functionsFigure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.
Poor Lighting Blamed for Human-leopard Conflict
Forest department has blamed poor lighting and lack of toilets for increasing chances of man-leopard conflict.After a recent incident where a three-year-old miraculously escaped from falling prey to a leopard at a tribal hamlet inside Aarey colony, the forest department has blamed poor lighting and lack of toilets for increasing chances of man-leopard conflict. The department will also write to BMC and the dairy department as Aarey Colony falls under its jurisdiction to take up the matter.On Wednesday a team of forest officials who are part of the Thane leopard rescue team along with wildlife biologists who are part of Mumbaikars for Sanjay Gandhi National Park (MSGNP) team visited Chafyachapada where the incident had occurred on Monday night for an awareness programme.Three-year-old Pranay was attacked by a leopard while he was following his mother Pramila Rinjad. Rinjad who did not know that her son was following her was headed towards a makeshift toilet at Chafyachapada. When she came out she spotted Pranay and saw a leopard pouncing on him from the bushes. Without thinking about her own safety, she shouted and rushed towards the big cat forcing it to run away. However the child had already received severe injuries.Instead of blaming the leopard the locals claimed that such incidents were waiting to happen due to poor lighting, lack of proper toilets. They also blamed poor waste management.Meanwhile Sunil Limaye, Chief Conservator of Forest (CCF) Territorial said, "Our staff have been patrolling the area. They even spoke to locals who emphasised on the need to have proper lighting so that people walking in the dark can be alert and not come across a leopard accidentally in dark."Limaye said, "These areas need to be well-lit. Even solar lights can be installed. Toilets must be built to reduce chances of human-leopard conflicts."Seven out of 27 hamlets in Aarey Colony still do not have electricity. These include Chafyachapada, Khadakpada, Jivachapada, Vanichapada, and Navapada.
From Social Science to
From Social Science to
Dr Rebecca Ford is a researcher in Energy at the Environmental Change Institute, where she manages the Oxford Martin Programme on Integrating Renewable Energy, and leads the Living Lab initiative at the University that aims to support the University to reduce carbon emissions by 33% by 2020. Rebecca is a multi-disciplinary scholar whose research focuses on energy challenges and transitions toward a sustainable future. She is interested in how people interact with energy systems, and how social science and technological insights can be co-developed to better inform decisions related to resource efficiency, carbon emissions, energy development and resilience. Hello Rebecca Ford. Let's go back in time. Can you remember where does your interest in renewable energy and environmental change come from?For as long as I can remember I have been in love with some of the wonders of the natural environment. As a child I was taken on ski trips and I always felt in awe of the mountains. As a teenager I spent time by the sea and marvelled at the sheer power of the ocean, and as an adult I've continued to enjoy spending time in the outdoors. So I think a desire to ensure we maintain our environment for future generations has always been in my blood. But I am also a very pragmatic person, so working with very tangible and realistic solutions around renewable energy and energy efficiency felt a natural fit for me.It's not always easy to understand what a researcher does exactly, so what does a typical day look like for you?My day to day can vary hugely. Some days I seem to bounce from meeting to meeting, exploring ideas to get new projects off the ground, working with existing project teams on specific tasks, or just meeting interesting people and soaking in new ideas. Other days I spend a lot of time in front of my computer, reading papers, analysing data or writing up findings. And of course, there's always the occasional fun of collecting data. Sometimes this means trawling the internet for various resources, other times I am out interviewing people (such as early adopters of rooftop solar), or designing surveys. There's always something to keep me on my toes!How important is it that people become independent in terms of their energy consumption?As our energy systems becomes increasingly distributed, with more and more households, communities and businesses generating their own energy, I think it's important to become smarter in terms of how we use energy. Traditionally we've had demand following electricity systems, where we ramped up or down generation according to demand. But with more and more renewables this becomes harder to do, and we need to start to balance supply and demand in new and innovative ways. So I do not think that means that people need to become independent, but that we need to think about how we can be smarter with using our energy when it's available.Do you think that in the future we will see more and more communities where people produce their own electricity and sell their surplus to their neighbours?We are already starting to see this in many countries, and as the price of solar, batteries, and smart appliances continues to drop, I can only imagine we will see more of this. Particularly as financial incentives to feed power into the grid are decreasing, there's more of a motivation to either use energy on site, or find alternative methods to sell the excess, for example through peer-to-peer platforms.According to your research, what factors influence people's decision to purchase new energy technologies such as solar PV home systems or electric vehicles?There are a whole variety of factors for different people in different locations. There's no doubt that the financial incentives for solar in places like the UK have been a strong influence on uptake there. But in New Zealand, where no financial incentives existed, people were purchasing solar for non-financial reasons; they lacked trust in their power companies, wanted to protect themselves from future spikes in power prices, wanted increased independence from the grid in the face of natural or man made disasters, and felt good about the technology. With other technologies, like smart appliances, we've seen different factors driving uptake, and while people may tell you they are interested in saving money or energy, it's things like safety, security and comfort that dominate purchases.What trends did you encounter in your research in terms of energy-related behaviour and uses in households?One of the things I've been fascinated by is actually the diversity of energy use patterns in homes. We kitted up 50 New Zealand households with energy monitoring kits, and had them also fill out a diary for a week to tell us what they were doing. And what we saw was a huge diversity between homes in terms of when and how they were using energy. We also saw a huge diversity within homes, so one home may have entirely different use patterns from one day to the next. I guess the best thing I could say here is that we really saw how strongly energy demand was influenced by a combination of the technologies people had, the ways in which they used them, and their expectations and aspirations around things like indoor temperature, eating patterns, and so on.How optimistic are you about the adoption of those new technologies? How long do you think it will take until it is "the norm" to have those devices in households?In general I am pretty optimistic about the technological side of the renewable energy transition, but I do not think that means we will (or should) see every home adopting them. I think we will see a mix of household, community, business, and national contributions, but the continued price declines, performance increases, and governments buying in to clean energy technology is heartening. You enrolled in a 2-year project to address Vanuatu's "energy poverty" in 2010. Can you tell us a bit more about the situation in Vanuatu and what were the main goals of "Lighting Vanuatu" as well as the main difficulties you encountered?Vanuatu is a really interesting country with a relatively small population spread over a large number of islands. This has meant that most people have no access to electricity, with kerosene remaining the dominant fuel for lighting. The goal of the project, which was run by Australia Aid and implemented by local NGOs, was to create a shift from kerosene lamps to solar lights. By this measure the project was a roaring success; when we visited we saw very little evidence of the kerosene lamps that had, until the time of the project, dominated. The solar technology was really embraced by the locals who found the lights much easier, safer, and convenient to use than the older technology. I think the main difficulties were in the distribution models. Of the two NGO's that were implementing the project, one was really successful based on the number of lights distributed, but kept very poor records and went out of business shortly after the project was completed. The other NGO distributed far fewer lights, so was less successful by this metric, but retained a strong business and is working to support a thriving solar economy. How did the locals embrace the project?The project was implemented by two local NGOs, who interacted with the communities through a number of information distribution networks. Because of the multiple channels used, they did a great job at getting the lights out into the community. And once the locals had been exposed to the technology, they wanted it! Many times we heard people say "what else but solar", and comment that they could never go back to kerosene. What is the SEE Change Institute and what research are you currently working on there?SEE Change Institute brings together a team of researchers who want to work on real world problems to try and affect change. Most of our work is focussed in the energy space, but we also have researchers who are experts in other areas of pro-social change. My main project here is focussed on the smart home, and trying to understand, and ultimately influence, how these new technologies might be used to deliver benefits to households and our wider energy system. One of the SEE Change Institute goals is to combine social science with innovative engineering. Why is that so important in term of solving the world's most pressing social and environmental problems?The world's most pressing problems are not contained to the disciplines we enforce in academia. So by looking at the problem through a single lens, you only see a small part of the picture. In order to more fully understand these complex and dynamic issues we need to look at them from all angles, which can only be done by bringing a multidisciplinary team together.Is there anything you would like to add?Only that I think the world needs more multidisciplinary work, and needs to hear women's voices more strongly. So often I am at events or in rooms where I am the only woman at the table, and I think this is a huge error. We need to work harder to support the smart minds that are engaged and interested in working in quite new and exciting ways.Interview by Anne-Sophie GarrigouSolar Lights....?You need direct sunlight. Sitting in shade and they will not charge the battery. Some come with small panels that can be placed away from the lights so there is flexibility where you can place them
Best Solar Path Lights for Your Garden
Have you ever stopped to think about how much electricity you’re spending just to keep things lit up at night while most people, including ourselves, are asleep? According to the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), poorly-aimed and unshielded outdoor lights waste $2 billion (17 billion kilowatt-hours) of energy in the U.S. each year. Improper outdoor lighting is responsible for massive electricity overuse. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) estimates that at least 30% of all outdoor lighting in the U.S. is wasted.Energy-Saving OptionsAlthough it can lead to wasted energy, outdoor lighting does have important applications, such as keeping our outdoor spaces safe and usable at night. In terms of energy savings and environmental conservation, the best option is solar. Solar energy is sustainable, renewable, and plentiful. Solar-powered outdoor lighting uses photocells to convert sunlight into electricity. Since they require no wires or cables, solar lights are easy to install and are virtually maintenance-free. Not to mention that operating solar lights won’t cause you to see an increase in your energy bills or generate any greenhouse gas emissions!The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that in 2019, the U.S. residential and commercial sectors combined used about 216 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity for lighting. This was about 8% of total electricity consumption by both of these sectors and about 5% of total U.S. electricity consumption.Residential sector electricity consumption for lighting was about 75 billion kWh or about 5% of total residential sector electricity consumption in 2019. If you’re looking to live an eco-minded lifestyle, a great way to start is by taking steps to save energy. Opting for outdoor solar lighting for your home will certainly help you achieve this goal, and it will also help reduce carbon emissions.Solar-Powered LightingSolar pathway lights generate and store their own power as energy during the daytime when it is sunny and then use that energy at night to light up the bulbs. Most solar path lights have an auto-detect function, which allows them to sense when light is needed and light up, and when it’s sunny outside, the lights turn off and resume the charging process again. Thus, these lights are a great option for anyone who is looking for environmentally-minded alternatives to meet their lighting needs.Below, we’ve put together some recommendations of different eco-conscious solar-powered lights for your garden or path.1. SolarGlow Solar Powered LED Pathway LightsThis is a great choice for those looking for eco-friendly solutions. They’re completely solar-powered and are charged only through the sunlight during the day and the lights work at night. They are also waterproof and incredibly easy to install. This solar-powered garden lamp is very practical and certainly serves the purpose of lighting up a garden space.2. SolarGlow Stainless Steel LED Pathway LightsThis is a cost-effective and eco-minded solution for all of your lighting needs and is perfect if you are looking to lighten up your space without any increase in your utility bills. These, too, are also completely solar-powered, hassle-free, easy to install, and waterproof.3. Moonrays Richmond Solar LED Pathway Warm White LightThese solar path lights have a 30-lumen output that is 25 times brighter than regular solar path lights and illuminates any area optimally. As they are solar-powered, there are no ongoing energy costs and it is a one-time investment.4. Sogrand Solar Pathway LightsThese lights have a classic garden design that makes them great decorations in any outdoor setting. They are are also waterproof and heat-resistant and are therefore very durable.5. MPOWERD Luci Solar String LightsThese lights provide 100 lumens of light to illuminate your patio, garden, or even your campsite space and are some of the best hanging solar lights around. Additionally, they are great for portability as they are stored in a compact expandable unit so you can bring your lights with you virtually anywhere. Not to mention that this company’s mission is to transform lives with thoughtfully designed and clean technology.By working with hundreds of community partners, MPOWERD distributes Luci solar lights to people in developing countries. This past holiday season, Kiwi Energy was fortunate enough to partner with MPOWERD to help them bring light to billions of people in impoverished countries living without electricity. Click here to learn more about our collaboration.6. GIGALUMI Cracked Globe Hanging Solar LightThis is a good choice for shoppers on a budget that want to enjoy the environmental-friendliness of solar lights. They’re rated at IP 44 in terms of waterproof-ness and dustproof-ness, which means that they’re resistant to splashes of water from all sides and are also protected from particles larger than 1 mm.These solar-powered pathway lights are environmentally-conscious, easy to use, and are ideal for your outdoor living space. There are lots of other solar lights available to help brighten up your outdoor living space, whether it is for safety or for ambiance. Check out com/best-solar-pathway-lights/ for some more options.Live an Eco-Friendly LifestyleBe sure to learn more about Kiwi Energy and stay tuned on our blog for more ways on how you can save energy and live a more eco-minded lifestyle·RELATED QUESTIONWhy don't hotel rooms have ceiling lights?My hotel building is over 100 years old, so we have ceiling lights. We also need a ladder to change a bulb 11' from the floor. It can take 20 minutes for 1 bulb! This is one reason that we have changed to the longer lasting (and more economical) low-energy bulbs.I would be delighted to have wall lights instead. Retro-fitting them would however be even less economically sound.Higher than average ceilings mean ladders to change the bulbs in ceiling fittings, and this extends the maintenance time and convenience for staff enormously. Even normal height ceilings mean that a chair is needed to swap a bulb out. Wall fittings are so much more convenient for both staff and customers, reducing the time taken to get light again!As Michael Forrest Jones says - anything other than a simple bulb swap requires the power to be cut to the whole circuit (which may be more than just a few rooms). This makes it very awkward to do emergency repairs after dark! -- Been there done that... Go with wall fittings that can be isolated in-room!In short:I have ceiling lights.I don't like them, as they are awkward for maintenance.Replacing them would be expensive and extremely difficult - basically a total rewire of the hotel lighting system.Design engineers are not stupid. they note the first 2 points!
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