Kemeco's Cape May Solar Post Cap


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cape may solar post cap is regarded as the star product of Kemeco Lighting. It is a product designed adhering to international standards and is found to conform to the ISO 9001 requirements. The materials selected are known as eco-friendly, thus the product meets environmental protection requirements. The product is continuously upgraded as innovation and technological change are implemented. It is designed to have the reliability that spans generation. Today, as a large-scale manufacturer, we have established our own Kemeco brand as an act to market toward the global market. Creating a fully responsive website is also a key to increase brand awareness. We have skilled service team standing by online to reply to customers as fast as possible.To offer high quality services provided at Kemeco Lighting, we have made great efforts on how to improve the service level. We upgrade the customer relationship system in a definite time, invest in employee training and product development and establish a marketing plan. We try to reduce delivery lead-time by improving output and shortening the cycle time.
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Development Direction of Solar Street Lamp Manufacturers
Development Direction of Solar Street Lamp Manufacturers
There are many solar street lamp manufacturers. In the face of fierce competition in the industry, solar street lamp manufacturers have to face some problems if they want to develop. If they want customers to find you or patronize you again, the premise is that you are a good manufacturer in all aspects, What kind of development direction should solar street lamp manufacturers have now?If the solar street lamp price has an impact on customers, it can only be that the solar street lamp manufacturer has not really succeeded. Because the price war is never an inevitable factor for the development of manufacturers. Today, you can give customers a very low price and reduce the street lamp price by reducing the Watts actually needed by customers. It may not be guaranteed that another manufacturer will use the same method to reduce the price and attract customers. You are lowering the price, and your opponent is also lowering the price. In this way, long-term development will only hurt both sides.Therefore, the price war is not the correct development direction of solar street lamp manufacturers. The correct direction should be to focus on product production, improve product quality and cost performance, and do a good job in after-sales service at the same time. It's like a 99 yuan smartphone and a Samsung phone with hundreds or even 3000 yuan. There is a big difference in price, but we still choose Samsung phone because of its high brand, good performance and cost performance in all aspects. Therefore, the development direction of solar street lamp manufacturers should not tangle in price, but do a good job in their products and improve their brand.
China LED Street Light, Solar Street Light, Garden Light Suppliers, Manufacturers, Factory - PHOEBUS
Phoebus light is one of the world's most trusted lighting brands. Phoebus light is tianxiang's primary brand for solar street light, led street light, smart light, garden light, lighting pole and other lighting products for both road lighting and project solution since 1996.Phoebus light occupies workshop space of 4500 m², now we have more than 200 people, especially 3 in R & D department, 5 in QC department, 8 engineers. So far we have over 10 patent technologies. The phoebus lamp series and solar powered lamps have been widely used in the industry.Why do children want to grow quickly whereas elder people want to return to their childhood?Because neither one really knows what they are asking.Kids do not realize they are going to have to make shitty choices, work hard to pay bills, clean, do laundry, probably miss out on things taking care of their own kid, not get a summer vacation, and face the fact that failure doesnt mean an F, it means homelessness. And they would find out they do not really know shit about all. Adults do not remember they wo not be able to drink alcohol, decide what they want to eat at meals, drive, go where they want when they want, see rated R movies, have sex without hiding it, have to ask to go to the bathroom during the school day, likely wake up earlier (I never had to wake up earlier for a job than I did to catch the school bus), go to bed when they want, pierce or tattoo at will, make major purchases or have much real freedom at all. Plus you would have to deal with other kids. As a peer. The mean girls, the peer pressure, swirlies, wedgies. Snapchat.If either kids or adults actually thought it through they would probably shut up and let nature run its course. Why do children want to grow quickly whereas elder people want to return to their childhood?Has anyone (african american) here tried using Jojoba Wax on your hair?no no what is your e mail address.....hit me back...wax will clog your pores baby gurl....dont do it........ i ask u before r u going natural?? or r u natural now????tricky physics question please help?12.5g is 122.5 m/s acceleration (outward) at rim is a = r = V/r V is the tangental velocity r is radius of circle is angular velocity in radians/sec 122.5 = V / 8.84 solve for V (a) (b) repeat above with r equal 6.84, solve for a, and subtractwhy buckethead dont speak to public ? and does he left the G n' R?Why mindbuggler dont speak english? and does he ever ask question understandable? And buckethead no like publicity and stupid celebrity garbage stalkers. and does left G n' R cuz Axl ego HUGE.Can I calculate stock value with Williams%R if I know the last set?William %R is a momentum indicator used for measuring overbought and oversold levels, it is not used to predict the price of a stock. In fact, William %R, like all momentum indicators, is a lagging indicator - meaning the indicator level changes as the price of the stock changes.It ranges from 0 to -100. Usually when a reading is less than -80 the stock can be considered to be oversold, and when the reading is above -20 the stock can be considered overbought. When viewed together with the price chart, this can help provide a trader with entry and exit points into and out of a tradeLet $R$ be a ring such that $R$ is a simple $R$-module. Show that $R$ is a division ring.Well, it's been a month, so here is the argument I had in mind. By assumption $R$ is simple as a left module over itself, hence every nonzero element $r in R$ has a left inverse $s$, thus $sr = 1$. But $s$ also has a left inverse $t$. Hence $s$ has a left and right inverse, which must agree, and hence $r$ does too.Showing $R$ is transitive and reflexive $to$ $R=R^2$, $R$ is transitive and reflexive $to$ $R=R^2$You need to distinguish very clearly between existential and universal quantification, and you should not use "let" when you actually want to say something about "any arbitrary given" something.Your first part of the first question should therefore be more precisely the following:If $R$ is transitive on $A$: For any $a,b in A$ such that $a R^2 b$: Let $c in A$ such that $a R c$ and $c R b$ for some $c in A$. Then $a R b$ because $R$ is transitive on $A$. Therefore $R^2 subseteq R$And here is the second part is in full:If $R^2 subseteq R$: For any $a,b,c in A$ such that $a R b$ and $b R c$: $exists x in A ( a R x wedge x R c )$. Thus $a R^2 c$. Thus $a R c$. Therefore $R$ is transitive on $A$
Where Can I Get Best Services for Garden Lights and Outdoor Lighting in Sydney?
Maybe that's what you are looking for ...Waterproof Led Garden Lights1. My solar garden lights don't work anymore. how can i restore them?Fit new rechargeable batteries, the ones they usually come with are of a low standard, but it can be cheaper to buy new lights, as the cost of the batteries can be more than the units are worth!!2. how do i get rid of earwigs in garden lights there only in the battery departments?After you clean them out seal the compartment with some sort of caulking so they cant reenter. They are just going in there to get out of the weather3. How do I keep rabbits from chewing electrical cords on my garden lights?Try the dog hair. Go to local salon and ask for hair from the floor4. please recommend a set of durable outdoor garden lights?Years ago I had Toro brand and they worked great, then I switched to solar, and I have been through sets almost once a year. I am going back to Toro and not using solar. Solar have some nice designs, but do not last long. It seems that the solar panel always turn cloudy and then it's trash. Toro is my suggestion. They can be found at any local home improvement and most stores like, Target, Walmart, etc. ;-)5. Who makes the best quality solar garden lights?For commercial grade LED solar flood lights, solar sign lights and solar security lights check Greenlytes online store6. How to tell if solar garden lights are working?pat,solar lights are NOT connected to an electric outlet,they get their energy from the sun,sometimes you have to replace the rechargeable batteries in the lights,the best way to tell is by putting your hand over the solar panel on top of the light, the light should come on,if it does not you may have to replace the battery,and i do not think they make a battery charger for solar lights,hope this helps7. My Solar Garden lights keep getting stolen?So you've spent how much on these lights so far? Here is what I would do. Buy this light for $29.00 (see link). it's a little motion sensor light. put it on a small post or someplace where if some one who walks up will set it off. It may scare the kids off. I am not saying it will work but you can try it. otherwise I've seen a motion sensor lawn sprinkler for gardens. Rabbits, squirrel etc. You would have to check around on that one.8. Can You Help Me Extend This Paper?-outdoor garden lights to avoid electrical cable -outdoor lights to light trails or walkways were no electrical power is -temporary highway construction signs -solar mats to recharge batteries on motor boats(electric start needs 12 volt battery)or even car batteries -solar powered water fountains -large array of solar panels for homes to far from the grid -solar panels for lights in homes in 3rd world countries -solar powered roof vents turn on when temperature in attics get to a certain degree and they turn on to suck out heated air -solar powered electric fences for farm animals -9. Replace NiCd batteries with NiMH in solar garden lights?Replace Nicd With Nimh10. What are the different types of solar garden lights available in the market?If you are trying to just shine light on the whole garden there are spot light and flood lights available. If you want to accent the garden, hang lanterns or add any number of ornamental figurines. There are solar rocks that can be strategically placed to shine across your garden to. Use several to surround your work. Solar lighting is an excellent choice. Just make sure to get your panels in the sun and keep debris off of them.11. How to Choose Outdoor Solar Street Lights ManufacturerOutdoor solar street lights have become the primary lighting projects for cities and rural areas. The solar street lamp consist of solar panel, rechargable battery, lighting fixture and controller. To choose outdoor solar street lights, the most significant part is to choose a trustable manufacturer. How to choose one? This paper will guide you to choose a reliable solar street lamp manufacturer. The parameters of the outdoor solar street lights produced by the manufacturers are very detailed, and the specifications required by the general customers will be involved. The parameters provided by that part of the company are not standard, and even the products produced and ordered are different. Trustable outdoor solar street light manufacturers can provide you with more options, so that customers can buy the best street lighting fixtures at a more affordable price. EXC provide solar led street light, led street light, smart street light, tunnel light, garden light and control system. And the solar led street light can be divided into all in one solar street light and split solar street light. Configuration of the outdoor solar street light can all be customized. If you do not know how to select the most suitable street light, you can consult the technical staff. Most of the related companies in the market have just established companies, with only office locations without physical factories, not to mention production capacity. After receiving orders, many companies go to manufacturers with production capacity to entrust production, so many rights and interests cannot be guaranteed for us. Shenzhen EXC-LED Technology Co., Ltd., a national high-tech enterprise integrating LED application product design, R&D, production, sale, and service, has always focused on outdoor street lighting projects with led lighting fixture and the cloud control system. SHENZHEN EXC-LED TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD has a physical plant of more than 40,000 square meters, committing to provide stable and reliable all round lighting system solutions for customers all over the world. As a professional outdoor solar street light manufacturer, deeply involved in the industry for 12 years, provide customers all kinds of street lighting solutions: Solar Street Lights, LED Street Lights, Smart Street Lights, Street Lights (General), Garden Lights, Tunnel Lights and Control Systems. EXC outdoor solar street light is made of advanced aluminum alloy material with eximious thermal conductivity and heat dissipation performance, the surface is anodized for strong corrosion resistance, good weather ability and waterproof structure. These features guarantee the long-lasting durability. Equipped with professional optical design, high-efficiency optical-grade lens and multiple configurations light are optional. Structure and electrical safety of the outdoor solar street light comply with the requirements of EN60598 and GB7000 standards. EXC outdoor solar street light manufacturer commit to the customers that will always provide the best customer service that users expect from us. Different solar street light manufacturers provide different after-sales guarantees. The warranty period of EXC's city circuit lights is 5 years, and the warranty period of outdoor solar street lights is 3 years. SHENZHEN EXC-LED TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD is a Chinese outdoor solar street light manufacturer established for more than 12 years with a good reputation in the solar street lighting industry. EXC's products are of good quality, good after-sales service, and it is the original manufacturer. Therefore, the company's annual trading volume is very impressive.
What Is Development of the Smart Led Solar Street Light in Africa?
Recently, a cross-border joint wisdom led solar street light in africa pole industry research white paper was held in Africa. The consultants attending the meeting made in-depth exchanges and discussions on the fundamental changes in the demand side of the smart led solar street light in africa pole industry this year, the evolution path of the industrial format and the future development pattern.So how do you understand the "wisdom" in the led solar street light in africa pole, and what is the ultimate goal?Wisdom led solar street light in kenya refers to the realization of interaction. Let people walking down the street see more than just a cold pole with a led solar street light in kenya lamp or other equipment. It should be true that it is convenient for him to interact with him. This is the goal and direction we pursue. Intelligent means is the means, and ultimately it can produce an interactive experience. Wisdom is the interaction between people and things. It is a process of two-way feedback and communication. Wisdom must be able to automatically generate solutions. What is the purpose of a smart led solar street light in kenya solution? Serving people.Everyone came up with a smart led solar street light in nigeria, but in fact it should be divided into three grades. The first one is to add a single led solar street light in nigeria light control. This is not a smart led solar street light in nigeria. Its positioning is a smart street light, plus a control platform. The second is to add a lot of equipment on the pole, but in fact all its equipment is to the background to control separately, this is from the expert's point of view, it is called multi-function pole, can not be called smart led solar street light in nigeria pole . It has no brain in front and no front-end analysis and processing power. If you have some functions, you can handle it independently after the front end collects the information, and the brain has the ability to perform fast calculations on the front end. This is the smart led solar street light in namibia pole. Therefore, if we want to guide the development of this industry, we must have a clear definition·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is proffesional led stage lighting?When you're putting on an occasion, whether it is an unassuming school play or a party, stage lighting rental is an unquestionable requirement. Lighting is a main thrust of your production, giving brightening, center, detail and modifying the view of the group of audience. There is nothing that so vitally passes on an inclination superior to a decent lighting system, and with boundless inventive potential, will serve as an immense advantage for your creation.Focus, position and hanging:Conventional stage lighting must be set up because of these three contemplations. Focus refers to where the light will point; position alludes to where the light will start from; hanging refers to the real demonstration of hanging the light. Shading, force and example (assuming any) should be considered next.Types of stage lighting :Ellipsoidal - these lights are the conventional stage lights and thought to be the most critical. They are centering lights, the appearance in front of an audience of which can be adjusted by screens and channels.Fresnel - these lights are utilized for shading washes on the stage.Standard Jars - these lights are the sort you will see in even the dingiest of bars. Continuously a strong choice, standard jars can get hammered, are sturdy and simple to transport.Follow spots - these are spotlights used to pursue somebody around a phase.Obviously, there are increasingly choices accessible for stage lighting with the consistent progress of innovation. Presently you have the fundamentals; here are a couple of more alternatives:LEDs - these Professional LED Stage Lightingare useful for centered pillars and have been gradually supplanting conventional globules in stage lighting.Dizzies - these lights are round circles with a few Drove lights (more often than not of varying hues) covering the surface. The circle pivots in an assortment of bearings and examples, making a whirling, confounding example, consequently the name.Gels - this term alludes to the hues given to lights. They function as shading channels, and should work in congruity with the shade of the light itself to accomplish the craved impact.Once you have got your types of lighting down, you'll have to consider where to place them. Here's an essential summary of lighting positions:Front - This is utilized for the most part for perceivability and shading impacts. Side - can be utilized to awesome impact to complement activity.Back - Additionally utilized for impact. This kind of lighting can make the dream of profundity on a phase, or notwithstanding to silhouette a man totally.
Outdoor Solar Lights - How to Find a Good Local Store to Buy Solar Garden Lights
Find out which local stores carry outdoor solar lights There may be stores near you that carry solar garden lights or there may not. Stores that carry them may include grocery stores, hardware stores, lighting stores, home improvement stores, multi-purpose or chain stores, or solar garden lights specialty stores. It may also be possible to use a search engine to search for a lights search term including your city's name, such as "solar garden lights Los Angeles", or "outdoor solar lights New York City". You could also look for solar garden lights in your local yellow pages, although stores that carry many types of items would not necessarily be listed under outdoor solar lights in a phone book.Find out if the store has the type of lights you are looking for Once you have found a store near you that sells these lights, you will need to find out if they carry the type of solar garden lights that you are looking for and if they are currently in stock. You may be able to call and ask what type of solar garden lights they have or search for lights on that store's web site, if they have one.Look at the appearance, size and warranty Once you are at the store, you can look at and possibly handle the outdoor solar lights, to see if they are the size, type and appearance of lights that you are looking for. You can also ask about the warranty on them and what the policy and procedure is if something goes wrong with the lights within a certain period of time.Look for a store that sells good quality outdoor solar lights If you are already familiar with certain stores, you may already have an idea if they sell good quality products in general, especially outdoor solar lights, or you may be able to get recommendations from people you know as to where they have seen or purchased good quality solar garden lights locally. Low prices won't necessarily mean good quality or long-lasting lights. Buying good quality solar garden lights that will last many years may be cheaper in the long run than having to buy several sets of cheaper quality lights every year or two because they don't work well anymore.Find a store that has good customer service In stores that have many types of products, the staff may or may not be knowledgeable about solar garden lights. It is helpful to go to a store with staff that are knowledgeable and helpful about this type of lights and also a store that has enough staff to help customers who have questions about products such as outdoor solar lights.Ask about the store's return policy It is good to find a store that has a good return policy. Find out things about the return policy, such as if the outdoor solar lights have to be unopened and unused for you to be able to return them, how long you have to return them, if you need to keep your receipt in order to return the outdoor solar lights, and if you would get a full refund or only a store credit.If you keep these things in mind when looking for solar garden lights, you may be able to find some great quality outdoor solar lights at a local store.
How to Make Solar Lights Last Longer?
To light up a grave site all night long you need both sufficient battery storage and sun and solar panel surface watts. Here are a few solar spot lights I would suggest:1. how do solar lights work?The panel on top of light absorbs solar energy and convert it into power which will be instored in batteris during daytime; at night, the battery will charge the LED light for work2. Whats wrong with my solar lights?You need check the power and light resource for your light and maybe the battery is not enough.If you want the light work as your demand ,maybe you need to chagne a bigger battery3. where/whose are the best solar lights to buy?For what purpose? Lighting up a pathway? Accenting the yard? Security lighting? There are all kinds of solar lights available4. Do solar lights for the outside home really work and do they last?If you want lots of light, forget solar, unless you want to install solar panels on your roof, and batteries, charge controllers and all that. Those little single lights you just poke into the ground are just token efforts.5. Can solar lights be charged from indoor light or has to be sunlight?Solar Powered Indoor Lights6. How To Make Solar Lights Last Longer?Well obviously solar lights need batteries. There is no sun at night when you would need the lights. The ones I have last about 3 years. Except for the really cheap ones from the mart stores. They lasted 3 months.7. How long do solar lights stay on?It depends on the type of lights you have. Accent lights will stay on all night with a few hours of sun, and often into the next cloudy/rainy night if the battery has stored sun. Lamps and Lamp posts are the same thing. You want to make sure you get good ones though, and look for ones with Lithium-Ion batteries. There are also decorative lights that stay on, such as lanterns or floating lights for pools. And floodlights/security spot lights that can stay on up to 2 minutes every time the go on for up to 100 times a night, or for up to 8-10 hours continuously.8. Light (Low-Light) Activated Outdoor Lights?If you are referring to the landscaping lights they are called solar lights. They draw energy from the sun during the day and light up at night. You can get electric ones and put them on a timer but who wants to run the wiring?? The solar ones are economical and can be placed anywhere. They are available at most any garden center and big box retailers like Walmart, KMart, etc.9. anyvone know about outdoor solar lights?solar panels absorb sunlight and convert it to electricity during the day,and then electricity charge battery by solar controller, electricity is stored into battery,at night,battery release electricity to power the LED by controller. It turns on automaticlly,you could not do it hand-operated10. Can i keep my solar lights outside all winter long even when it snows?Solar Lights In Winter11. i had outdoor solar lights stored in my garage 2 years. 3 days ago i put them in my yard, they're not workingHello, First thing you can do is to remove the batteries from one of them, then if you have a battery charger at home try to recharge them for let say 12 hours if it's a regular charger. when they are fully charged place them back and give it a try. If this do not work, you definitely need to replace the batteries.12. how are you helping the environment?I usually recycle the waste material in my house. Using solar lights in my garden. I usually use bicycle to go nearby13. outdoor solar lights - not working after being flooded?Once they are dried out and are not working they probably will not work again14. we bought some individual solar lights from English Gardens. They are copper looking ones. My husband?Check that the batteries for insulation. Also look for an on/off switch which some solar lights have. Best to turn them on during the day, then off (or remove the batteries) over night, then on again (or replace the batteries) the next morning to give them a couple of days charge before the first use of the lamps over night.
Garden Lights Manufacturer in Gujarat
Hatkesh Engineering is making very good quality garden lights with varios colour Powder Coating. We are making Garden lights in CFL Base as well as LED Base. It is very useful in individual houses, Hotels, Hospitals , and corporate offices. We are also offering programming chargers for dawn to dusk lightings. We are offering Garden Lights in various designs and sizes. We are also making customize designs as require by customer. Looking for Garden Lights manufacturer in Gandhinagar, Garden Lights supplier in Gandhinagar ? Contact Hatkesh Engineering for Garden Lights exporter from Ahmedabad.Inquire at or call at 9898105579, 26461285.Website - Link - Captive Projects Developer Gujarat, Solar Street Light manufacturer in Gujarat, Solar Rooftop Developer in Gujarat·RELATED QUESTIONWhy do American men wear class rings, but won't use their postnominal degrees on door signs and business cards?American women wear class rings, too. I wear mine.Generally speaking, displaying where you got your degree from on a business card or a door sign would be seen as odd, at best. If somebody handed me a business card with the Harvard logo on it and he didn't work at Harvard, I'd probably ask about it: "Oh, do you do work with Harvard University?" and if the answer was, "No, I just attended" I'd find this an unpleasant level of showing off. Not classy.A lot of Americans will have college-related paraphernalia in their offices, though. Like, you may see a pennant or they may have their degree(s) up on the wall. This is a more casual display of affiliation.Likewise, the ring is casual. Class rings are usually not that obtrusive, particularly the signet variety.Usually, the signet is only immediately recognized by others who attended the university (though I have had people ask me to hand over my ring so they could take a closer look at it before), and thus it kind of acts like a secret handshake. I've had people from my college recognize my signet ring on sight, and then we have an instant connection.It's just a lot classier than shoving it in everybody's face all the time in an American social environment, basically.
Solar Street Light All in One Street Light Made By
products & solutions let the green energy illuminate the future. renewable energy; stand-by energy; products; solar pv modules; grid-tied solar pv systems; new solar lamp integrative led light solar street lamp and outdoor lighting; solar system for telecom equipment; solar system for oil & gas sector; explore more. products; dc-dc converter; ac ups systems; dc rectifierI have a sodium vapor lamp on an outdoor light and it goes out when the door is shut is this a bulb problem?Probably a switch or loose connection problem, the arc should not extinguish when shakenHow does an outdoor light sensitive lamp post work and how do you troubleshoot one that flickers on and off?Same as previous answer or the sensor itself could be bad as well2 OutDoor Light Wiring Questions Wire coming thru wall to outside has 2 white wires. New fixture has 3 wires?you actually need a volt meter to test between either wire and the earth on the outside of your home...the one that reads 120 volts is the hot line mark this one with a black marker or wrap black tape around it....then hook black to black and connect the bare ground wire to the box the lights mount on .I just installed at 13 watt Compact Floresent Outdoor light, how long will bulb last.?Fluorescents do not like to go on and off allot. at the end of the bulb is a filament just like on an incandescent that ionizes the mercury in the bulb. Leaving a fluorescent on will make it last longer. generally, these small screw in fluorescent last 8 - 10 times longerLinking nighttime outdoor lighting attributes to pedestrians' feeling of safety: An interactive survey approachCitation: Portnov BA, Saad R, Trop T, Kliger D, Svechkina A (2020) Linking nighttime outdoor lighting attributes to pedestrians' feeling of safety: An interactive survey approach. PLoS ONE 15(11): e0242172. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The study was founded by the Israel Science Foundation, which, along with the authors, holds explicit rights over the data collected. As the data used in the analysis contains information on individuals, as well exact coordinates of the locations in which the assessments were performed, the information is sensitive and cannot be shared without the Foundation's consent. However, other researchers may send requests for a de-identified data set directly to the Israel Science Foundation (). Funding: This research was supported by the Israel Science Foundation (Grant number 400/18). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Public space lighting (PSL) is an important component of the urban environment and has a major contribution to the pedestrians' overall feeling of safety (FoS) and comfort after natural dark -. Effectively, PSL is characterized by several attributes-illuminance, light color temperature, uniformity and glare ,-each of which may influence FoS, as well as energy consumption -, and human health , . PSL is currently designed according to international, national or local standards, such as EN 13201 . However, since the association between the above-mentioned lighting attributes and pedestrians' FoS has not been sufficiently studied , , it is not clear enough how well do the abovementioned standards, albeit technically efficient, contribute to FoS. Moreover, human perceptions of PSL attributes may be influenced by socio-demographic characteristics and may vary according to individual, locational, environmental and temporal circumstances. Therefore, an empirical model that links lighting attributes to FoS and considers various contextual factors is currently lacking. The present study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by developing a PSL-FoS model that links illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare values with FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. Such a model may help to adapt PSL to various settings affecting FoS, and thus may contribute to increased urban residents' satisfaction and wellbeing, while reducing health and ecological risks, and increasing energy efficiency. Several studies have looked into the factors affecting the perceived quality of nighttime illumination by pedestrians , 13-. However, most of these studies were performed in laboratory conditions, which cannot realistically reflect the complexity of outdoor environmental factors (e.g., time, weather, vegetation density and terrain), thus potentially causing biases in the information collected. Studies focusing on outdoor lighting constitute a distinct strand of research , 12, 25, , but they are relatively scarce and entail various limitations. Most of these studies are based on "self-report" questionnaires, which are subjects to various biases and limitations, such as inefficient management of information on measurement time and location during the assessments . Using "paper & pencil" technique to record PSL assessments outdoor after-dark may also pose difficulties, especially to the elderly and visually impaired . Consequently, some respondents may prefer to record their assessments later on, in better visual conditions, which may introduce uncontrolled errors, resulting from memory limitations . Another bias may occur due to insufficient guidance to find the exact location of the designated assessment points. A significant bias may also result from having company during the assessment, such as in the studies of Kelly et al. and Wu , where observers were sent to perform FoS assessments in couples or accompanied by research assistants. In a recent study, Fotios & Johansson examined how pedestrians appraise others' intentions in different outdoor settings. The researchers conclude that as long as a person can identify other pedestrians' faces, PSL is sufficient. Furthermore, the study in question was performed in a simulated built environment, and involved a relatively small number of subjects, which limits its generality. To sum up, we should remark that previous studies that explored potential associations between artificial lighting and FoS have had several limitations. First and foremost, most of such studies were carried out in laboratory conditions . Second, most of them used "paper & pencil" self-administered questionnaires, which entail well-known drawbacks, such as inefficient management of important information in a timely manner . Third, most previous studies were based on a relatively small number of participants , which substantially limits their generality. Finally, none of the studies carried out to date attempted to link different PSL attributes (especially light color temperature) with FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. The study, which results are described in the rest of this paper, attempts to address these limitations by exploring how the abovementioned PSL attributes-illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare-affect pedestrians' FoS in different contextual settings. The multivariate analysis of the recorded data revealed several important findings. First, it was found that locational, socio-demographic, temporal and environmental factors have a significant effect on FoS. Therefore, universal lighting standards cannot be suitable to maintain the desired FoS in all urban areas. The analysis also shows that the minimal levels of illumination required for achieving the same level of FoS differ across cities, being higher in the inland arid city of Beersheba in compare to the coastal cities of Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This finding reconfirms results reported by Svechkina et al , which showed that residents of coastal areas, with often clouded skies and denser vegetation, may be satisfied with lower illumination intensity, in compare to residents of inland arid areas, characterized by stronger daytime lights and less light-obscuring vegetation. Another interesting result stemming from the analysis is that lights perceived as warm tend to generate a better FoS than colder lights, given the same level of illumination. This finding may guide future illumination polices aimed at reducing unnecessary energy waste and preserving a cleaner urban environment. Generally, our findings are in line with the results of Rahm , who demonstrates that PSL, along with individual and environmental factors, have a significant impact on pedestrians' FoS. Nevertheless, the results of the current study are novel in several respects. First and foremost, improving pedestrians' FoS can be reached either by switching the light color temperature from cold to warm, or, alternatively, by increasing illumination. The former approach is less energy consuming and may result in substantial economic and environmental benefits. Second, locational factors (such as different cities and neighborhoods), as well as temporal factors (such as hour of the evening and month of the measurements), which were not assessed in previous studies, were found in the present study to have a statistically significant effect on FoS. It is important to note that in this study, the predicted FoS was linked to assessed PSL attributes, while, alternatively, the level of FoS could potentially be linked to instrumental measurements. Although both approaches-that is, individual assessments vs. instrumental measurements of PSL attributes-have their own merits, in the present study, we preferred to use the former assessment type. Our main reasoning is that people effectively link FoS to their assessment of lighting attributes, not to instrumental measurements, which they are unable to perform. Lastly, we note that this study uses the standard ordered logistic model, which, at least in theory, may lead to erroneous conclusions that some explanatory variables are less significant than they actually are (false negative conclusions). However, since we have found significant effects, the issue is not major and the identified significance levels we have found may be viewed as a lower bound of the true significance. Future studies may consider the use of generalized ordered logistic models -, to reduce this concern. An explanatory model linking FoS with different PSL attributes, along with controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors, is estimated and reported in this study. To estimate this model, 380 observers were asked to assess PSL attributes in different urban settings during different hours of the evening, as well as to evaluate their perception of FoS associated herewith. For this purpose, a specially designed cellular phone application, CityLightsTM, which represents a novel interactive real-time methodological approach, was designed and employed. This app provides an efficient alternative to the "paper & pencil" questionnaires, commonly used to record observations made during an outdoor experience. Based on cloud technology and GPS, the app enables pre-authorized observers to record their assessments along with temporal and geographic information, while preventing observers from deviating too far from pre-determined reporting points. The app also prevents the same observer to enter the same assessment point more than once, and blocks the use of the app before the natural dark or by unauthorized people. In this manner, the app ensures the accuracy and integrity of assessments. The present study is the second in a series of planned studies, carried as part of a large-scale research project, funded by the Israel Science Foundation. The project aims to model the perceived quality of PSL in urban areas by using an interactive user-oriented approach. The first paper in this sequence aimed to identify only the level of illumination required by pedestrians to feel safe while walking through the streets at night. Concurrently, the present study links different PSL attributes (illumination, light color temperature, uniformity and glare) to FoS, while controlling for individual, locational, environmental and temporal factors. The study was carried out in three large cities in Israel-Tel Aviv-Yafo, Haifa and Beersheba,-along pre-defined routes in 10 different neighborhoods (three-to-four neighborhoods in each city). A representative sample of participants used the CityLightsTM app to report their assessments from 257 pre-designated points, yielding altogether 25,940 individual valid records, which account for different PSL attributes. The results of this study hold a potential for improving pedestrians' FoS through better design of PSL by soliciting interactive responses from local residents and adjusting PSL attributes to their needs. Such a user-oriented approach allows to receive real-time feedback and may thus elevate PSL systems to a new level of interactivity and intelligence. Findings of the study may also guide future PSL polices aiming at increasing energy efficiency and reducing health risks to humans and ecosystems. This goal can be achieved by adjusting not only illumination intensity, but also light color temperature, to the desired levels of FoS, concomitant with desired goals. By venue of this, the results presented in this paper can be of interest for urban planners, environmental law enforcement authorities and decision-makers in local municipalities. In particular, following the results presented in this paper, PSL design for desired FoS can enable temporal and locational variations of illumination intensity and light color temperature and their locational variation, to reflect population makeup and building patterns in different neighborhoods and in different cities, thus helping to achieve a desired level of FoS. In particular, study results may encourage PSL designers to use warmer light, which can generate higher FoS for the same level of illumination. Applying just this strategy may decrease PSL-associated costs, in compare to those generated by the commonly used cold lights. Furthermore, as warmer lights are associated with higher FoS, using such lights may compensate for a reasonable reduction in required illuminance, without compromising FoS. The model estimated and reported in this paper can help to estimate this possible tradeoff between required illumination level and light color temperature for any desired level of FoS. The study findings may guide decision-makers towards improving new urban design and street retrofit projects. For instance, according to our findings, to achieve acceptable FoS levels, street lighting (SL) designers should focus on three main factors-illuminance, uniformity and light color temperature. In doing so, SL designers should keep in mind that, according to the study findings, urban residents appear to prefer warmer lights, which make them feel safer, in compare to cooler (i.e., bluer) lights. It is also important to keep in mind, that illumination levels should reflect contextual settings, considering that residents of cities, in which daytime radiance levels are high, may require more nighttime illumination to feel sufficiently safe after natural dark. As the results of the present study also indicates, in designing PSL installations, planners should account for the demographics of potential users, such as age and gender, which were found in this study, along with the environmental characteristics of different urban settings, which appear to significantly affect FoS perceptions. Temporal factors should also be taken into account. For instance, PSL level should be designed to enable increased intensity in illumination or changing light color temperature towards warm after 22:00, in order to maintain the same level of FoS. Thus, the study may contribute to optimizing PSL standards, which are presently mostly geared towards road traffic rather than to pedestrians' needs. Several interesting topics, which were beyond the scope of the present article, can be addressed in future studies. Two of them hold promising potential to quantify energy savings: the relation between FoS assessments and PSL instrumental measurements, and the potential linkage between illumination intensity and color temperature. Future studies may also increase the FoS-PSL model's validity and credibility by using means, such as a larger number of observers in each neighborhood, additional neighborhoods in each city, additional cities, more diverse urban settings, and various socio-demographic and cultural conditions. Another important future direction for scholarly enquiry is interactions between different FoS predictors, such as e.g., age and gender, and their combined effects of FoS.
What Aspects Should Be Considered When Purchasing Street Lamps From Solar Street Lamp Manufacturers?
What Aspects Should Be Considered When Purchasing Street Lamps From Solar Street Lamp Manufacturers?
With the development of science and technology, as an indispensable part of urban lighting, LED solar street lamps are widely popularized and gradually replace the traditional ordinary lighting street lamps in the past. Solar street lamp is a new green scientific and technological product. It is mainly powered by solar cells and controlled by intelligent system controller. It usually uses LED lamps as light-emitting appliances, with long service life and energy-saving and environmental protection. As an engineering party or individual, when purchasing from solar street lamp manufacturers, it is suggested to consider the following aspects:【1】 Pay attention to the quality of LED solar street lamp solar controller and batterySolar controller and battery are important components of solar street lamps, and they are also two objects that are relatively easy to be damaged. Therefore, when purchasing from solar street lamp manufacturers, it is necessary to know whether they are within the warranty period and service life, and discuss with solar street lamp manufacturers the maintenance work after the object is damaged in advance. If there is a problem with the battery or controller, it can be replaced in time, so as not to affect the lighting of street lamps and bring potential safety hazards.【2】 Attention should also be paid to the material of LED solar street lamp pole and lamp capRemove the core components of solar street lamps. The materials used for lamp posts and lamp caps shall also be taken into account when purchasing from solar street lamp manufacturers. Good materials can withstand the wind and sun without frequent replacement. It is very important to prolong the service life of street lamps and save resource consumption.【3】 LED solar street lamps are of suitable quality and reasonable priceDue to the different brands of solar street lamp manufacturers, the prices of solar street lamps will be different. At this time, comparing the material quality and corresponding price of the core objects of solar street lamps with other accessories is helpful for the final selection of cost-effective solar street lamp manufacturers.
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