Small Solar Lamp Post Buying Guide

2021-08-17
Kemeco
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On this page, you can find quality content focused on small solar lamp post. You can also get the latest products and articles that are related to small solar lamp post for free. If you have any questions or want to get more information on small solar lamp post, please feel free to contact us.

The team of in-house designers responsible for small solar lamp post and suchlike products in our company - Kemeco Lighting are leading experts in this industry. Our design approach begins with research – we will conduct a deep dive of goals and objectives, who will use the product, and who makes the purchasing decision. And we leverage our industry experience to create the product.Kemeco is one of the pioneers in the market now. Our products have helped win more recognition from customers for their durable performance. We always emphasize the importance of the influence of word-of-mouth and focus on the customer feedback, so that we can improve ourselves to do better. It turns out it is effective and we have gained more and more new customers.At Kemeco Lighting, we understand that no requirement of the customer is the same. So we work with our customers to customize each requirement, providing them with the individualized small solar lamp post.
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A Good Guide of Wholesale Outdoor Solar Lights How to Choose
A Good Guide of Wholesale Outdoor Solar Lights How to Choose
Various size of wholesale outdoor solar lightsThis article will show you how to use an electrical wiring box to light up your home in no time. A lot of people have problems with electricity when they are not using electricity. They also tend to forget about the safe and clean energy that they use. This article will show you how to use an electrical wiring box to light up your home in no time. Make sure that you get the right type of electrical wiring box for your needs. The types of electrical wiring boxes that you need will depend on your needs.There are many types of wholesale outdoor solar lights, but there are some that are available in the market. For example, you can buy them at low prices and have them installed in your yard or garden. They can be purchased from different online stores. Some of the most popular wholesale outdoor solar lights are Solar Lights and Solar Coils. Most of the people who own these solar lights also have some knowledge of solar panels and they can help you choose the best solar lights for your needs.As with any type of equipment, there are some things that can be done to help you save money on your energy bills. There are several types of solar lights that can be used to make sure that you don't run into any problems with your system. Some of the things that can be done to help you save money on your energy bills include: A replacement battery or solar light, and if you have one then a good way to do it is to go for solar lights that are inexpensive and will last you a long time. They are cheap and they will last you a long time.If you have a small household then it is better to buy the best ones at low prices. They are good enough to make your home comfortable and secure. You can use them for commercial purposes, such as industrial uses. It is better to buy outdoor solar lights in bulk, but if you want to be safe then go for cheap solar lights. The types of solar lights you choose depend on your budget and what kind of solar lights you want. Most of the solar lights come with batteries and some come with other features that make them suitable for residential use.What are the pros and cons of different wholesale outdoor solar lightsIt is very important to know what are the advantages of different wholesale outdoor solar lights. We have come up with a list of the best wholesale outdoor solar lights that we can buy and sell. This will help you to make sure that you get the best deal on the products you need to use. We also offer free shipping on all orders over $300. All orders will be shipped from our warehouse in Columbus, Ohio. If you have any questions about our products or want to learn more about our products then please visit our contact page.When it comes to buying outdoor solar lights, there are two main types of solar lights. The first type of solar lights is usually made of high quality materials and these are called as solar post lights. The second type of solar lights are usually made of recycled plastic and these are called as solar post lights. These solar post lights are more expensive than traditional solar post lights and they also have higher efficiency. Solar post lights can also be used to reduce electricity bills if you use them.There are two main types of wholesale outdoor solar lights, one is Solar Rechargeable Outdoor Solar Lights and the other is Solar Positron Low Voltage Outdoor Solar Lights. The advantages of solar rechargeable outdoor solar lights are as follows: they provide good brightness and you can run them in your backyard without much hassle. There are many kinds of solar lights available in the market, but most of them have built-in components that make them easy to use. They also have a rechargeable battery that makes them easier to store.Most of the people who own solar lights use electricity from their home or grid. There are many types of solar lights, including gas light, oil light, incandescent light, fluorescent light, halogen light, LED light, gas light, etc. All of these types of lights can be bought in bulk. If you have questions about what type of solar lights you need then contact your local store.How to decide the right size of wholesale outdoor solar lightsFor many years, we have been told that there are two main types of solar lights. The first type is used by farmers and businesses to generate electricity for their fields. The second type is used by individuals who own small homes or business and can provide energy for them. There are several types of solar lights, but they are usually built on a frame or panel and can be customized to suit the needs of the individual user. This is one of the best ways to use solar lights.For years now, I have been searching for a way to make sure that my children and grandchildren can use my products. And then there are people who will say that it is impossible to know what kind of product to buy in bulk, but how do you know what kind of product to buy? For example, I would be interested in buying an LED light bulb for Christmas and not just because it is cheap but because it is very convenient. Also, I would like to know what kind of material to buy in bulk, and what kind of energy source to buy in bulk.With over 100,000 square feet of space under our roof, we can be sure that we will have a huge savings on our electricity bills. If we do not have a big yard with lots of parking spaces and yard lighting, then the question of how much solar energy will be needed to keep our homes free from grid instability is an important issue. However, if we do not have a big yard with lots of parking spaces and yard lighting, then the question of how much solar energy will be needed to keep our homes free from grid instability is an important issue.This article is about buying outdoor solar lights and how to use them effectively. The internet is not all that large, but there are some things that you can do to keep in mind when buying outdoor solar lights. Some of the things that you can do to keep in mind when buying outdoor solar lights include: How to choose the right type of solar lights? Can you tell me what kind of solar lights you want? What kind of solar lights do you want? Do you want to make sure that you have enough light in your house? Do you want to save money on your energy bills?
Solar Lights to Light Up Your Life - Times of India
Types of Solar Rechargeable BatteriesWhen I look at my light bulb, I wonder how long it will take for me to turn on that light. I realize that this light bulb is one of the few lights that we can have for our lives. I guess this light bulb is a piece of art and is worth more than the bulbs we have around us today. There are so many of us in the world who are suffering from a myriad of health problems and suffering from anxiety. People who are suffering from anxiety often struggle to concentrate on their tasks at work or study.Do you want to make a difference to the lives of others? For starters, look for a job in the industry that requires no prior experience. It is a very simple, fast way to get a good job in the industry. At a minimum, it will give you the skills you need to write content in an interesting way. That means it will also allow you to build your career in the industry. What you will need to have is a passion for making people happy. You will need to have the patience to write and get a good cover letter. Do not be afraid to get creative.Indian lamps is available at all major outlets of india and are easy to make in time. Lightbulbs, whether on your lamp or a battery are easy to make and simple to maintain. To light up your life you just need a little imagination and a few items to make your lamp light up. When your lamp lights up you will be greeted by the sunrise or the new day of your life. And you can make a few simple lamps in your room that you can place in your bedside table, in your car or anywhere you can.Find the Right Battery for Your Needs or solar lightsMy love for science and the connection between science and life are as strong as ever. My parents would always tell me to learn about science and my interest in science started at an early age. I have been taking the best of both worlds to my grave and it has been great.Do you need to know about solar lights to light up your life? Just be sure that they are right and don't put your life in danger just because of some science fiction fads and legends.People in India are so well aware of the fact that energy needs and our environment have grown in tandem over the years. Many people even turn off their lights to save electricity. This is an amazing trend that can have a huge impact on the world and on people's lives. Because of this, it is a good idea to use solar lights to light up your life. They can save you from draining your energy. This will save you from energy bills, making your life easier and make you happy. They are even on sale at almost every major store.Most of us have our own lamps to read at night and can often fall asleep in them, but we should all be investing in new, brighter light bulbs. Solar lights have come a long way since their inception and we can't wait to see the changes they will bring. This is a good example of a title for a blog where the focus is on a subject of importance and people will read more of it if they look out for them. In this example, the title is about 'solar lights to light up your life' and the focus is on 'times of india.Since the number of people on the planet today are so small, it is not feasible to use all the power we have at our disposal. A lot of energy and resources have been put into powering solar lights. This energy has helped the people of India in creating an economy of solar lights. The good thing about solar lights is that they use very little energy. However, they also use less energy than most other energy sources, including gas, coal, oil and electricity. This energy is renewable and could save the lives of the people who live in India.The Advantages of a Solar Rechargeable Batterysolar lights are just the first steps to becoming a renewable energy source. There are a lot of other uses for solar lights and many more that will come in the future. Solar lights are an affordable way to provide a light source for people and also make life easier. Many people are getting solar lights for their home.It is not possible to completely change the world but it is possible to create the world that we all want to live in. This is a fun way to pass the time. And let us be happy with our lives. And let us live by the law of conservation of energy. This is a great way to pass the time. Because sometimes it can get too hot in the city. And sometimes it can get too cold in the country. But when you work in the cities, the sunlight helps you to see more and understand more. And the people in the cities will also get more sun.It's very important to us that solar lights are used for cooking, lighting, and in many cases they are also used for home entertainment. Many people say that we need to use solar lights to help us stay awake during the dark and it is true that it is possible to use solar lights to light up our home at night, however, many people think that we are just going to light up the lightbulbs that we already have. When it comes to home entertainment, people usually tend to ignore solar lights because they do not have a home entertainment system.I'm from India and I grew up in this area and I live in this area now and I've lived in different parts of India too. My job is to help people understand solar light in order to make their lives brighter and safer.Disadvantages of a Solar Rechargeable BatteryFor most of us, life is mostly darkness and anxiety. For most of us, the need to brighten up our lives is the only way to make a living. Our future depends on a way of life which is more peaceful and self-sufficient. Our time will be a better one if we are responsible for ourselves. That's why, the things we want to do, we can do. It's the things we do not want to do that can really ruin our lives. For the world to change, it is important to make change in our lives. Life is the only thing that will change if we take care of it.The sun has been the brightest light source for millions of years. But the harsh environmental conditions that the sun has been facing for centuries mean that it has turned into a beacon of light for our ancestors, just as it was for ancient Egyptians. The use of solar lights have increased drastically over the years. Solar lights can be powered by electricity or batteries, with a maximum of four lights on at any one time. Today, solar lights are an integral part of almost every home. In fact, there are millions of people living in a rural India without electricity, and the only solution to this problem is solar lights.The next technology to take off will be solar lights. But before that, we need to make sure that the power we have is reliable and effective.At least a few people around the world will be surprised to find out that a few thousand years ago, suns and stars lit up the night sky. That's what people did back then. It is only in the last hundred years that it has been completely replaced by more advanced technology. Even in India, we are now seeing the replacement of the sun with computer based lights. With a new technology and some lucky times, it is possible to enjoy all the features of the sun. What can you do with all that technology that we have now? You can save the planet from global warming. People can enjoy the sun even in darkness.
Outdoor Solar Lights - How to Position Staked Solar Garden Lights
Decide what look you want to achieve with your outdoor solar lightsDecide if you want your lights to be evenly spread out or if you want them to be in small groups. By placing them evenly spaced, the outdoor solar lights will shine light on more parts of your landscaping. With your solar garden lights in small groups together, the lights will create a more accented look that is perhaps more artistic. Decide also if you want your lights to light up particular objects, flowers, plants, steps, obstacles or a path or sidewalk.Figure out if your solar garden lights will get enough sunMake sure that the spots that you have chosen for your outdoor solar lights will get enough direct sunlight throughout the day to recharge their batteries. Look for any possible sources of shade that might fall on your lights.Make sure that the ground is suitable for stakingThe ground or grass should be suitable to have your solar garden lights' stakes pushed into it. The ground should be firm enough to hold the lights steadily in place and not be easily knocked over by a person or yard equipment, but if the ground is too rocky or hard, it may be difficult to push the outdoor solar lights' stakes into the ground.Try temporarily placing the solar garden lights after darkYou may want to try temporarily placing your lights in their intended positions and look at the result after dark. That would give you an idea if your lights will achieve the lighting and look that you are hoping for.By keeping just these few things in mind for your outdoor solar lights, you should be able to achieve the solar garden lights look and function that you want.
Led Solar Street Light Circuit Diagram System Design Pdf
Circuit diagram of the solar garden light is shown in Fig. 1. It is built around a solar lamp controller IC CL0116 (IC1), a miniature solar cell, a bright white LED (LED1) and a few other components. Fig. 1: Circuit diagram of solar garden light. This circuit requires only a single Ni-Cd rechargeable battery to light up the white LED for more than five hours depending upon the ampere-hour (Ahi need to find out whether my figs have sugar coated on them?The label ingredients list would have to include sugar. Most likely if it says natural, there's no sugar coating. They are naturally a little gooeyWhat can you do with dried figs?Fabulous Fig Bread Categories: Breads, Low-cal Yield: 22 slices 1 c Dried Figs, ground 1 c -Boiling water 3/4 c Pistachios 1 1/2 c All-purpose flour 1 ts Baking soda 1/4 ts Salt 4 tb Margarine or butter 1 c Sugar 3 tb Egg substitute; -OR- 1 -Egg 1 ts Vanilla In a medium-sized heat-proof bowl, combine the figs and pistachios, add boiling water and let cool to room temperature, about 1 hour. Position a rack in the center of the oven and preheat to 350 F. Grease an 8-1/2" by 4-1/2" loaf pan. In medium sized bowl, combine the flour, baking soda and salt. In a large bowl, beat the butter until fluffy. Gradually beat in the sugar. Add the egg and vanilla and beat for 1 to 2 minutes, or until lightened. Add the dry ingredients and beat until just blended. With a spoon, blend in the fig mixture. Turn into the prepared pan and bake 1 to 1 1/4 hours, or until the bread just begins to pull away from the sides of the pan, and the top springs back when lightly touched. Cool in pan on a rack for 15 minutes, and then turn out and cool completely. Wrap in plastic and store overnight before serving. Cut into thin slices. Yield: One 8-1/2" x 4-1/2" loaf - 22 slices Each serving contains approximately: Calories 124, Fat 3.39 g, Dietary Fiber 2.22 g, Carbohydrates 22.4 g, Protein 2.38 g, Sodium 94.8 mg, Cholesterol .026 mg Calories from protein: 7% Calories from carbohydrates: 69% Calories from fats: 24%wat can i do with figs?I do not give a fig about figs! No, really I've only eaten them in Fig Newtons and they were okay, have not tried a fig in its natural formwhen is the best time to prune a fig tree?Is it indoors or out? Just finished a class in pruning. Dead branches are pruned at any time. Actual remedial pruning is done when the plant is dormant. Outdoors, this is in January and February. Indoors, when the plant appears to be dormant...no further growth or leaf pruductionWhat does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean?This Site Might Help You. RE: What does kate Chopin's "Ripe Figs" mean? I do not have to write an essay about the story, I need to write a short sequel, moving the story from fall to spring. In order to to that, I want to know what Kate Chopin was trying to get across when she wrote it. I have a feeling it's has something to do with age and patience, but why does...if i ate dried figs all day?that is a alot of fiber lolEdible unclonable functionsFigure 1 shows that the photoluminescent properties of fluorescent silk proteins are used to realize multiple challenge-response pairs in an edible PUF platform with heightened security for on-dose authentication and anti-counterfeiting of medicines. Importantly, challenge-response pairs differentiate our protein-based PUFs from other common unique objects and tags29,63. In reaction to optical challenges, defined by a unique set of excitation and emission bands of different fluorescent proteins, the edible PUF made of silk protein (i.e., fibroin) and fluorescent proteins generates distinct output responses, which are used to extract digitized keys (Fig. 1a). The source of entropy is randomly distributed fluorescent silk microparticles seamlessly embedded in a covert thin transparent silk film. First, we take advantage of four different fluorescent proteins (i.e., eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2) that have specific excitation and emission peaks in the visible wavelength range (Supplementary Table 1). Specifically, we utilize fluorescent protein-expressed silk produced by transgenic silkworms as recombinant proteins via the piggyBac transposase method (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. 1a). Silk proteins are an excellent biopolymer to be genetically hybridized with fluorescent protein genes46,55,57,59. Second, to fabricate fluorescent silk microparticles (Supplementary Fig. 2), fluorescent silk fibroin is regenerated into an aqueous solution with a low-temperature process, is freeze-dried, and is gently ground into zeolite-shaped microparticles with sizes of 99.3 7.9 m (mean standard deviation) (Fig. 2a, b and Supplementary Fig. 3). Third, an admixture of the fluorescent silk microparticles is broadcast on a large flat surface and a white silk fibroin solution is poured on top. After an ambient drying process in the dark, this thin transparent silk film with a thickness of 150 m is punched into 7 7 mm2 squares, resulting in all protein-based edible PUF devices (Methods and Supplementary Figs. 2 and 4). eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 silk cocoons possess bluish, greenish, yellowish, and reddish colors under white light illumination (Supplementary Fig. 1b). However, after the regeneration of the fluorescent silk, each type of fluorescent silk microparticles are not distinguishable in the naked eye, while maintaining their fluorescent properties (Fig. 2 and Supplementary Fig. 5). This fabrication process is scalable for mass production without using any sophisticated equipment and is safe for oral consumption without any organic solvents or synthetic polymers (e.g., methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or polyvinyl alcohol) (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 6a). Analyses of mass spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and in vitro cytotoxicity (cell viability test) assays support the overall nontoxicity of the edible PUF devices (Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Figs. 7-9). In Fig. 3, the flow diagram illustrates how a cryptographic key is extracted from an output response when challenged by a set of excitation and emission bands, including the raw output measurement, the bitstream extraction, and the final digitized security key. We mainly use four representative challenge-response pairs (n = 4) based on the excitation and emission peak wavelengths of the individual fluorescent proteins in silk (Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 1c). An input challenge (C ) is selected as a combination of the excitation and emission bands at specific wavelengths such as = 415 nm and = 460 nm; = 470 and = 510 nm; = 470 and = 560 nm; = 530 and = 630 nm, corresponding to eCFP, eGFP, eYFP, and mKate2 in silk, respectively. Upon optical excitation, a raw fluorescent image is recorded by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a conventional zoom lens via a tunable color filter (Methods and Supplementary Fig. 10a). In other words, the corresponding fluorescent image acts as an output response (R ). A resultant digitized key (K ) is obtained by an extractor that converts the fluorescent image of silk microparticles to a binary bitmap (Fig. 4). First, to improve the quality of binarization, we normalize the raw fluorescent image (300 pixels 300 pixels) by the maximum intensity (Fig. 4a). The noise is removed by applying a threshold of 20%. Fluorescent areas smaller than a specific pixel size of 20 are also considered as noise. Then, the image is resized to be 150 pixels 150 pixels with a binning process. Second, to ensure a low bit error rate (high reproducibility), we find the spatial peak position of each fluorescent silk microparticle where the highest intensity peaks of the microparticles are located, subsequently reducing the image size to 50 pixels 50 pixels (Fig. 4b). Then, the peak positions are only assigned to 1 bits and other pixels are 0 bits. Third, to remove the bias of 0-bits, we apply an enhanced version of the von Neumann bias compression algorithm with two-pass tuple-output debiasing (Fig. 4c)64. Because the fluorescent peaks are relatively rare events in the entire image due to the density of the fluorescent microparticles, global bias is present such that 0-bits are generated consistently more often than 1-bits. Finally, after debiasing, we use first 64 bits as a digitized key in each response, because a typical minimum number of peaks in the fluorescent images is 32. Combining four challenge-response pairs (n = 4) together, the final digitized key size results in 256 bits (=4 64). We assess the quality of randomness of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences, using the NIST statistical test suite that was originally designed to evaluate random and pseudorandom number generators65. One of the minimal requirements of PUFs is randomness with high entropy, as PUFs rely on an entropy source to create an unclonable output response66,67. When PUF responses are used for cryptographic key generation, it is also critical to evaluate the randomness to ensure the unpredictability of the keys generated by PUFs. The NIST statistical test suite includes 15 different tests to quantify the randomness of bitstreams. Each test focuses on a specific aspect of randomness (Supplementary Table 2). Some of the tests rely on the minimum sequence length of 1 106 and the minimum number of substrings (blocks) of 55, requiring a total stream of 5.5 107 bits. On the other hand, the key size of the edible PUFs is significantly shorter than those of random number generators. To use seven statistical tests that require a reasonable stream length, we explore the randomness of binary sequences summed from 30 different PUFs (Fig. 5). Specifically, we collect a total of 7680 bits from 30 different PUFs (256 bits for each PUF) and divide the bitstream into 60 sequences to perform each statistical test 60 times on individual 128-bit long sequences (Supplementary Dataset 1). Each statistical test returns two results; a p-value of a chi-squared (2) test and a pass rate (i.e., proportion), as shown in Table 1. As summarized in Table 1, the binary sequence from the 30 different PUFs passes all of seven NIST randomness tests without any post-processing. The parameter values used in each test and the characteristics of the NIST randomness tests are summarized in Supplementary Table 2. In other words, the bitstream (7680 bits) extracted from the 30 PUFs is statistically random, supporting the idea that the output responses of all protein-based PUFs can be unpredictable and unclonable. This result also supports the idea that our simple broadcasting process of particulate fluorescent silk offers a random spatial distribution as a straightforward yet effective entropy source60,61. To evaluate the basic PUF performance, we examine the digitized keys of the edible PUFs. We first estimate the bit uniformity by checking the equal probability of observing 1-bit or 0-bit states: where K is the lth binary bit of the key and s is the key size. Basically, the bit uniformity is the Hamming Weight (i.e., number of 1 bits in a binary sequence) of the s-bit key. For 30 different PUFs, the distribution of bit uniformity converges to the ideal value of 0.5 (Fig. 6a). Then, to evaluate the device uniqueness of each PUF, we calculate an inter-device Hamming Distance (HD) by counting a number of different bits between two PUFs under the same challenge. The device uniqueness measures the degree of correlation between digitized keys measured from two different PUFs. Ideally, the digitized keys from any two selected PUF devices should be uncorrelated, indicating that the state of a PUF is unknown even when the states of other PUFs are known. The inter-device HD between any two PUF devices can be defined: where K and K are s-bit keys of the ith PUF device and the jth PUF device among q different PUFs, respectively. The 30 different PUF devices generate a total of C (=30 29/2 = 435) comparisons. In Fig. 6b, the histogram of the normalized inter-device HDs is well fitted into a Gaussian distribution with a center at 0.5032 with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.0458, which is close to its ideal value of 0.5, exhibiting the excellent device uniqueness of all of the edible PUFs. In addition, we investigate the degree of correlation among the digitized keys of four responses in each PUF by calculating an average HD (Fig. 6c). The 30 different PUFs result in a mean HD value of 0.499 with a SD of 0.0041, indicating that the individual digitized keys in each PUF are also unique. When the number of challenge-response pairs is extended to seven, seven resultant digitized keys are still uncorrelated with a mean HD value of 0.5089 with a SD of 0.0766 (Supplementary Figs. 11 and 12). In addition, we calculate an encoding capacity of the edible PUF-generated binary sequences. The encoding capacity simply means a number of codes that can be generated and is defined as cs where c is the bit-level (c = 2 for binary bits of 0 and 1) and s is the key size38,68. To accurately estimate the encoding capacity, it is important to use an appropriate key size. When an imaging scheme is used, one may think that the total number of pixels (variables) is the digitized key size. In this case, the actual encoding capacity can be less than this nominal encoding capacity, because each individual pixel (variable) cannot be completely independent. One way for estimating the number of independent pixels (variables) is to analyze the degrees of freedom; s = p(1 p)/2, where p is the mean probability and is the standard deviation31,34. In Fig. 6b, the resultant width of the inter-device HD distribution shows that significant subsets of the key are mutually independent, corresponding to the degree of freedom (or number of independent variables) of 120 (0.5032 (1 0.5032)/0.04582). As a result, the edible PUF has c = 2 and s = 120, resulting in a relatively large encoding capacity of 2120 (1.3292 1036). Importantly, the debiasing process is useful not to comprise the actual coding capacity. If a security key is biased with too many 0 s or 1 s, the actual coding capability is often diminished. A large encoding capacity could be utilized to provide information on manufacturer-determined data, including dose information (e.g., dosage strength, dose frequency, and expiration date), manufacturing details (e.g., location, date, batch, and lot number), and distribution path (e.g., country, distributor, wholesaler, and chain). If a higher encoding capacity is required for a specific application, the key size of our edible PUF can simply be scaled by further optimizing the density of fluorescent silk microparticles, which allows for a larger number of peaks in each image. The number of challenge-response pairs can also be increased by incorporating additional combinations of the excitation and emission bands (Supplementary Fig. 11). To examine the feasibility for reliable PUFs, we test the readout reproducibility and stability of the security keys from the identical PUF device. The reproducibility of a PUF represents the ability of generating the identical keys following the same repeated challenges. We calculate an intra-device HD, which is quantitatively described by a bit error rate (i.e., percentage of error bits out of response bits with an ideal value of 0) from 10 challenge-response cycles (nine pairwise comparisons) for each PUF device. For the ith PUF device, an average intra-device HD captures the readout reproducibility: where K and K are the original s-bit reference key and a s-bit key extracted from the same PUF device at a different time-point t and m is the number of repeated measurements. Figure 6b shows a relatively low mean value of 0.0632 with a SD of 0.0164 estimated from the intra-device HD histogram for the 30 different PUFs at the same 10 challenge cycles. We further examine the long-term reliability under the same challenges after 60 days in the laboratory environment (i.e., stored at 22 2 C and 40-50% relative humidity in the dark) (Supplementary Fig. 13). When the fluorescent intensity of the raw fluorescent images taken 60 days apart is compared, the correlation coefficients (r) of the four responses (R , R , R , and R ) range from 0.833 to 0.983. For the pixel positions of the first 32 peaks in the binarized images, the r values are even higher than 0.895 for all of the responses. These results support the potential reliability of the protein-based edible PUFs, although the reproducibility assessments do not reflect extremely harsh conditions, given the medical applications. We further estimate a false positive rate and a false negative rate from the inter-device and intra-device variabilities. When PUFs are used for authentication, the false positive rate is the probability that PUF A is authenticated as PUF B. The false negative rate is the probability that a correct PUF fails to be authenticated. The resulting false positive and false negative rates are 9.6394 1013 and 3.0982 1012, respectively, assuming that the inter-device and intra-device variabilities follow Gaussian distributions (Supplementary Fig. 14). The pairwise comparison map of cross-HD analyses further shows that all of the 30 different PUFs are highly uncorrelated (Fig. 6d) where the diagonal line indicates the intra-HD values for the identical PUF device itself, while the off-diagonal points represent the inter-HD values compared with the other PUF devices.
Visitors After the Baby? 10 Tips for New Parents
Do you feel special when you're pregnant? Well, step aside, Lady, because a baby is here and people love babies.The dilemma that comes with having this little rock star in your home now is that billions of people will want to come visit it. Some will be helpful, some will not.So here are a few handy tips I've picked up along the way so you're able to show your magnificent little miracle off to the world like Simba in The Lion King.Don't let anyone stay with you that you can't cry in front of or you can't tell to "shut up" There may be a few people that offer to stay with you when the baby comes. This can be a Godsend or a sh!tshow. Really think about that person and how much you want them to see behind the curtain. You may be too tired to delicately say, "I know she's not latching properly, but I'm just trying to get the hang of it," and instead say, "See off? You need to f#ck right to it!" Decide carefully about who you want to be around 24/7 when your inner filter isn't working at full capacity.Spread out the visitors.People love to see the baby immediately. That, or they feel obliged to see the baby immediately. Either way, try to spread them out as much as you can so you can get settled and enjoy everyone's company long after the fanfare typically dies down. Try not to book too far in advance either, you seriously may feel great the day after you give birth and feel like a back alley crack whore by week two.Go to people that you think will overstay their welcome -- don't have them come to you Sometimes, this really isn't their fault. I was one of these people before I had kids because I had no idea how tiring a newborn can be. I would sit there gabbing on about some new bar I'd been to while staring into the vacant doll-like eyes of my best friend holding her newborn. I'm sure she wanted to tell me to shut my cake hole and get the hell out of her house, but just didn't have the energy.These are the people you should meet for a coffee or go to their place.First of all, newborns are very portable because they eat, sleep and poop and that's about it, so take advantage of this window when you can cart them anywhere and they don't care. Secondly, it's all on your terms when to pull the chute and you won't have to drop the little hints that go unnoticed. By the way, some of these single people, elderly uncles, etc. are fantastic to be around because they are often just as self-absorbed as a newborn and it's strangely refreshing to talk about something other than babies sometimes.Put them to work Some people are just itching to help when you have a baby and you know what? Let them. These people are like damn border collies and if you don't give them a task, they get destructive and are liable to chew the leg off a chair or worse, start throwing stuff out. Let them do dishes, tidy up, clean the bathroom, take out the garbage, take your other kids to the park, whatever. Don't want them seeing your gross underwear? Throw it in your closet and let them deal with the rest of the pile.Just leave *your* to-do list out and if they ask if they can help, just point them to it and tell them to help themselves if they feel like it. Not everyone is comfortable around babies but really want to help, so give them the satisfaction of doing something for you and just enjoy it and thank them profusely so they don't start installing a sprinkler system.Tag team Remember the first point? That kind of applies to visitors as well. If they aren't the kind of person you can lose it in front of, then have a buffer person with you to entertain or deflect if you need to pull a batsmoke. Just have these people over when your partner, close relative or friend is around in case you need to excuse yourself for an hour to cry on the bed for no particular reason (I did this... twice).Partner plays the bad cop If you think you're second string to the baby, just imagine how your partner feels. This is his chance to shine because I can gua-ran-tee you that there will be some tricky situations when visitors come; like the cousin that announces he's just getting over the flu in passing conversation while holding your 3-day-old infant. Or the great aunt that insists that the baby needs to be brought out in a snow storm to meet her bridge club. Or the nephew that drops by and could "really go for a sandwich." Dad (or partner, or sidekick), it is your job to step up and say, "Oh, hell no." You know why? Because everybody thinks a protective father is cute and everybody thinks a protective mother is nuts, so do everybody a favour and unhinge.This is also a perfect opportunity for an Al Pacino impression.Have them bring food As my friend's Jamaican grandmother used to say, "Don't come wid you two long han". Which loosely translated to don't show up empty-handed. Most visitors like to bring something whether it's a gift, flowers, etc., but food is always such a great thing to receive when you're tired and just learning the ropes with a baby and people are usually more than happy to help. (If you're dealing with people who think you should be honoured with their presence -- see point 3.) Have them pop it over or sit down and share it with them, either way, they get a baby fix and you get some lasagna. I say win-win.Treat it like an Out-of-Office Reply* Sometimes people think it's nice to pop in to see how a new mother is doing if they haven't had an immediate response to a message they left an hour ago. This actually isn't too bad for the people you can tell to "shut up" because you can tell them if it isn't a good time and their feelings won't get hurt. For the rest of the population, it is not cool to arrive unannounced at a new parents front door because there is no telling what kind of Stephen King nightmare is going on that day.To avoid these awkward moments, I like to treat it like a vacation notification. Change your voicemail and your email to let people know you're kind of off the grid. It may seem like a no-brainer to you, but some people feel the need to constantly "check in." Just have an auto-reply that says, "Thanks for your email (call). We're just getting the hang of parenthood so forgive us if it takes a little longer than usual to get back to you. Don't worry, we're just fine and loving every minute of it." I know this may be a little over the top and may feel like the equivalent of adding the dog's name to Christmas cards (I love that actually), but it's an easy way of letting them know they've been heard.*Obviously, if you're alone and live in the woods in wolverine country, disregard this advice and be grateful someone is checking to make sure the cat isn't eating your corpse.Pre-Prep Do you think Aunt Kelly is going to be a problem? Get your responses thought out NOW or start laying the groundwork NOW. If you think she's going to show up on your doorstep the day you give birth then start telling her the story of a co-worker's mother-in-law that showed up the day she gave birth and how awful it was and how you're so lucky that your family just gets that you need a couple of days to settle in. Get an email ready saying, "Aunt Kelly, we can't wait for you to see the new baby! I'm just getting the hang of it so can I give you a call when I come up for air so you can come over and meet her?" then hit *send* when she fires off the first email.Go with the flow Does Aunt Kelly still show up? Does your Mother-in-Law that you've never met fly in from the Ukraine and set herself up on your couch? Does your sister drop in everyday to tell you about the disgusting brunch she had or everything about her wicked pilates instructor?Roll with it and save your energy like a solar street light on a dimming switch. Ask Aunt Kelly to hold the baby while you go have a shower. Say "Diakuju" when your mother-in-law makes dinner, then go lie down with the baby. Tell your sister she needs a f#cking punch in the throat then apologize and blame it on your hormones while savoring the good vent.The best thing you can do with visitors, a new baby, and I suppose life in general, is just roll with it.Even though you are now regarded as the remaining husk that brought this precious, perfect gift into the world -- you will be asked how you feel as a courtesy but no one gives much of a sh!t how you are now, so try not to ramble -- it's still your show, honey. So remember, choose your visitors wisely and enjoy the little star that everyone wants to see shine.
50 Walkway Ideas to Install by Yourself Cheaply
This will bring tons of focal stimulation to your patio and green garden space at night, an LED concrete walkway. The project involves installing a flagstone stepped walkway, and next, you can install the LED light edging. A better project to do with solar lights. Drilling the stone to fit lights may be a little challenging.Kinds Of Batteries And Their Capacity For Solar LightsSolar lights are leading the go-green trend in the household lighting industry. No doubt they have provided an efficient, environmentally-friendly solution to the security issue facing every property owner. The rechargeable battery is the core element in this wonderful invention as they can supply power for the whole system's operation. Because batteries are selling on the market with different types and capacities, consumers may run into the trouble of getting the wrong type. Go on reading to learn about the most common types and their specific uses. Four most major types of batteries for solar lights, which we will discuss in this article, include NiCd, NiMH, lead-acid and lithium-ion. NiCd, or nickel-cadmium, battery is a combination of cadmium and nickel, alkaline and separator. It is available in various capacities and sizes ranging from AAA to D. At first, NiCd batteries were designed with the aim of replacing older non-rechargeable alkaline batteries, so they can work well in the same portable devices that use the latter. On average, the cell voltage of a NiCd battery is measured at 1.2V. Unlike lead-acid batteries, those of NiCd can keep a steady voltage of 1.2V during the discharging process, even when they are nearly exhausted. Also, NiCd batteries are well-known for low internal resistance, which means they can discharge and charge power within a very short period of time, just approximately 1-2 hours. At the same time, they only need replacing after about 400-500 times of charging. Due to their low cost, they are normally used in low-end portable lighting, which needs only "some sort of illumination." When being unused, a NiCd battery tends to self-discharge about 10% of energy each month under the condition of normal temperatures. If there is an increase in the temperature of the surrounding environment, that discharge rate can rise by twofold. Therefore, users should completely discharge the battery before storing it in a cool place. NiMH, known as nickel-metal hydride, battery belongs to the rechargeable category. It has many things in common with its NiCd counterparts like form factor and components. But rather than using toxic cadmium, it contains hydrogen absorbing alloy (links) that serves as a negative electrode or anode. With this feature, NiMH batteries boast their environmental friendliness and ability to recycle. Moreover, they have twice as high energy density as NiCd batteries. That means they can store more energy in smaller and lighter battery. In solar flood lights, the larger capacity is equal to the longer period of operation with one charge. To be more specific, a NiMH battery can maintain a solid 1.2V for almost 70-80% of its total discharge time. The lifespan of such type of battery varies according to their capacity, but in general, it ranges from 500 cycles as for high capacity batteries to nearly 3000 cycles for lower capacity ones. They can be rapidly charged within an hour. Not developing a memory effect, NiMH batteries enable solar panels to refill power at the same rate for various times without doing any harm to the battery capacity. Because of long discharge duration, NiMH batteries are widely used in all range of solar flood lights, from low to high-end ones. But they are mostly found in low and mid-range lights, for example, front door lights, garden lights, security lights, decoration lights, shed lights and so on. However, they run a high risk of self-discharge, up to three times greater than that of NiCd batteries. If being left on the shelf for a month, a fully-charged battery will lose about a third of its power, which can increase in line with the rise in the surrounding temperature. As the oldest type of rechargeable battery, lead acid batteries are often used in high power portable floodlights. They include two sub-categories: starting batteries, suitable for use in places needing short and powerful energy outputs, and deep cycle batteries. Capable of handling discharge cycles with long-term usage. Lead acid batteries are the combination of multiple single cells, whose approximate voltage is measured at 2.1 volts. They are available on the market with different sizes and capacities with common voltages falling into the range of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. To increase the lead-acid battery's capacity, it is feasible to connect multiple batteries in parallel. Unlike NiCd and NiMH ones, lead-acid batteries self-discharge only between 2 and 5% a month so that they can be stored unused for a long time. Cheap cost, good low-temperature tolerance, and no need for frequent maintenance make such type of battery ideal for solar flood lights that demand a great deal of power. However, they have a relatively short life cycle, which goes to about 300-500 cycles. Therefore, after a few years of usage, you have to change the battery of solar flood lights. Known as Li-ion, Lithium-ion batteries have just entered the solar rechargeable battery market for a short time. Their fast charging rate and weight savings make them suitable for portable devices' use, but not so much in solar light applications, especially mid-range solar lamps. Like NiMH, lithium-ion batteries are environmentally-friendly with no use of toxic materials such as cadmium and mercury. They are available in different sizes and shapes with voltages fluctuating between 3.2V and 3.8V. They can be as small as coin-shaped cells and as large as battery packs found in electric vehicles. On the whole, they are much lighter and more compact than other rechargeable batteries while providing the same capacity. Their charging and self-discharge rates greatly vary among different types of lithium-ion battery. But in general, it takes about an hour to charge fully and the maximum self-discharge rate is 8 percent per month. When it comes to average lifespan, a lithium-ion battery can be used for 500-2000 times. However, the high manufacturing cost and low-temperature intolerance can make customers hesitant over buying Lithium-ion batteries. In short, depending on the size and energy requirements of each solar light, there are corresponding types of battery. Therefore, remember to use the proper type of batteries for your solar lights to exploit their operation to the maximum. It is also essential to replace batteries when they have gone to the end of life cycle and remove them from the device when you intend to store garden lights unused for a long time. And make sure to keep batteries away metal objects and in a dry and cool area to minimize chances of an electrical short. Once you get the hang of each battery type and its maintenance tips, you are likely to enjoy the wonderful applications for solar lights for many years.
Second Sight: Is New Lover Going to Break My Heart?
Dear Dominic,I HAVE been kind of seeing a man for ten months.It’s very casual and we’ve only spent the weekend together four times.This has been due to work and our children with our ex’s. All seemed to be going brilliant.We were texting all day everyday and speaking on the phone regularly. We have mutual friends so both sets of kids know each other and get on well.I moved nearer to the area he stays after a job offer. The move was already in motion before meeting him.I had to go through court to move due to difficulties with my ex.The man I am seeing also has a lot of trouble from his ex. So I moved and all was well for about two weeks.Suddenly he’s not texting as often and has cancelled a date once. He’s blowing very hot and cold and I’ve no idea why.I’ve spoken to him asking if things have changed, if they have, fair enough, not everything works out the way we want it to.But he says he does care about me and has feelings for me but doesn’t know what he wants.Part of me thinks I should just walk away but my gut is telling me to hang in there.I’m a Sagittarius and he is a Libra. He keeps me grounded and feels like my soul mate, which is hard for me to understand as I decided I wasn’t getting heavily involved again.Being hurt in the past has been a struggle to get over.Should I wait as my gut is telling me or run for the hills?MICHELLEDOMINIC SAYS: There is a lot more going on behind the scenes but I can tell you he does have feelings for you.I sense he may have a lot going on in life with his controlling ex who still has her claws in to him and who I feel is giving him a lot of stick just now.I do feel you both have a great bond and could really make a good go at a solid relationship but being too serious might be what he is scared of.Blowing hot and cold is not good for a Sagittarius as they are quite impatient but easily attached. I say give him the space he’s scared to ask for. Look after yourself and get back into the swing of things but if romance comes around don’t pass it by you can’t wait for ever.Dear Dominic,MY wife and I lost our beautiful daughter, aged 41, to cancer in 2012.She left a husband and two young children, a sister and a brother and ourselves devastated.Her children would like to know if their mother is watching over them and is she proud of them for the way they are coping?It would help her daughter especially as she misses her mum so much as we all do. God bless you — I hope you can help.JOHN AND RUTHDOMINIC SAYS: Your daughter is well within the spirit world. She is free from her pain.She tells me she had a wonderful life and is very grateful for everyone’s help with her illness and is with you all very much.This young lady was loved by many and had such a big heart.I see her being the one caring for every one else and at time shrugging her own health off.She said you had her funeral just as planned and she’s grateful for that.Someone has created a shrine in memory of her with a stone or plaque with her name and dates on it with a tree planted and lots of little angel figures and solar lights which she loves dearly.As for her daughter she is very like her mother and now she’s trying to be the one caring for everyone — has she spoke of nursing?She will do a lot more for charity and mum says and she will be by her side doing the charity walk.She is also happy her daughter takes care of her belongings and tell her daughter her mum has the letter she wrote.She is so proud of all of you. She is glad you all stayed close but says mum has to stop saying it should be me that is gone not her.She is perfectly fine and the photo in your bedroom of her is how she is now.She sends love to John and Karen and mentions Ruth and Gill too.AS a psychic we get asked lots of questions in readings to which we can turn to the cards for the answers.Here is a simple way you can get your own guidance from a simple set of playing cards at home.Remove the kings, queens and jokers so you are only left with numbers. Shuffle the cards at the same time as you ask your yes/no question. Cut the cards into three decks face down, then pick a card from each deck at random face up.The odd numbers indicate a negative outcome or the answer no and the even number being yes or positive. Although this will not work every time you will start to know and feel the cards.SCOTT Disick has split from reality star Kourtney Kardashian after he was spotted close and intimate with his ex-girlfriend.To me this guy does not know what he wants but I can clearly see he needs to get his fathering skills back in shape.This break up will not phase Scott in the slightest as he has his mind set on too much and I am certain he’s wanted out the relationship for a while.I feel it wont be long till there is a court case in play and the dirt will be out.For now he should stay away from the females and see to his children.THE past few years have seen an increase in reports of the black eyed children. These are child spirits who have no iris and no whites, just completely black eyes.This is not something I have came up close with nor heard much about but last year there was a number of reports to police in Cannock, England, which sparked a police search after a local lady was spooked when she turned around to find a young girl standing with her hands over her face.When she dropped her hands the lady jumped back as she got sight of the deep black eyes.After the lady screamed the girl quickly disappeared into the garden.Many people believe the eyes are the key to the soul allowing you to see into the persons being — does this mean the black eyed children no longer have a souls? Some people claim these children are demonic.I hope I never come across any form of child spirit like this and dread to think why they still haunt this earth.Do you have a problem Dominic can help with? Then send him a letter at dominic.boag@thesun.co.uk or follow him on Twitter @ScotSunDom
ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS: SOLAR STREET LIGHTS PROS & CONS
In this blog we give you our tips on some useful pros & cons questions you should ask your solar street light provider. Apart from the fact that many solar street light companies always emphasize the wide applicability of their products, when thinking about the actual needs and problems solar powered street lights should resolve for you, the key is in understanding your individual situation and unique project circumstances.Simply stating the benefits of solar street lights to a diverse pool of potential users is not enough. In a reverse logic, it is much more appropriate for solar lighting companies to take the user perspective by conducting a deeper analysis of each individual problem and the context in which it takes place: "Who needs solar street lights and why?"Why don't we start by looking at how the problem will be solved for you in the first place: "Do you want to improve energy efficiency and reduce your electricity bills to zero? Do you prefer to see long-term ROI by using clean energy for LED light? Do you aim to reduce your carbon footprint and benefit from renewable energy subsidies? Do you perceive solar energy lights as a reliable standard in the street lighting industry?"Simply put, you need to know all the positive and negative aspects of the solar LED lighting system, how it functions and how smart technology can ensure performance reliability and cost efficiency over the product lifetime. Asking the right questions is crucial!Let's get into the pros & cons of solar street lights and some questions that may help you save money and improve your decision making process.Solar Street Lights: Most Important Questions for CustomersEach street light model you choose to implement must undergo thorough analytic approach in determining the most feasible solar system components (LED light, solar panel and battery capacity), technical product specifications, solar controller and communication network, system design and overall energy outputs for your preferred type of solar energy light.What is the application of your solar energy light? Is it going to be installed on a sidewalk, in a park, on an airport, at University campus, at a parking lot, on a roadway, on a bridge, in a residence, at industrial facility or another place? All of these locations may require unique considerations when developing your solar street light project.Is it going to be a retrofit solution (if yes, will it be off-the-grid or on-the-grid solar retrofit solution) or completely new pole installation? These questions need to be closely discussed with the solar provider so that you are aware of all the peculiarities of the solar lighting project you are trying to implement.Communicate your energy needs to the solar light provider in terms of expected hours of light per day, energy conservation objectives per year, movement and frequency in the desired location. If the solar provider optimizes the solar system components properly (solar panel wattage and optimal angle, LED light wattage and battery amperage) in relation to your energy needs and the pole height, you should not overpay the battery and solar panel capacities, because system optimization means doing more with less.Ask for calculations on solar irradiance and insolation for your specific location based on the selected solar system specifications and configurations. These calculations will clarify the solar energy potential of your location. Check this Q&A on solar irradiance for more info on the topic.Ask for full on-site and off-site support by the solar provider, solar installers and/or other involved contractors during all phases of the solar project implementation. For example, transportation costs are much lower if the pole has a modular design, which is good to know from a customer point of view when choosing which solar street light model to implement.Ask for training of software usage if your solar street light has remote management control and monitoring system.Finally, consider also the costs of maintenance and servicing, always ask for a long-term solution regarding these important issues with precise cost estimates.Asking the Right Questions Part 1: Solar Energy Lights CONSThe main disadvantages of solar street lights include the following:1. The initial investment for solar LED street lights is higher than for traditional street lights.Your questions to the seller:- What is the expected return on investment and at what rate per year?You need to ask for financial analysis of the expected ROI of the solar lighting project that will include the following main categories: insolation parameters, energy generation in kWh per month and per year, servicing and maintenance, installation and miscellaneous. Solar calculations are the backbone for the financial feasibility of your street lighting project!- What is the guarantee for the battery, the solar controller, the solar panel (ask for linear performance guarantee), the LED lights, the system electronics and the pole?It is important to have everything laid down to you upfront so that you can conduct your own calculations on the feasibility of the solar lighting project. Each of these essential components of the street light has unique characteristics and functions which are highly significant to the long-term durability of the product. You can find useful information on the main components of solar LED street lights in this paper.2. The dust, snow or moisture can pile up on the solar panels and reduce the energy generation.Your questions to the seller:- Do you provide servicing related to cleaning the dust, show or moisture from the solar panels?- How often do we need to make sure that the solar panels are cleaned to have the maximum performance and energy generation?If you are having solar street lights in a windy or dry, desert like location or in northern regions with lots of snow, ask for a better estimation of the expected periodical cleaning of the panels, including other measures for mitigation of these external conditions.3. The rechargeable batteries need to be replaced several times.Your questions to the seller:- When would I need to replace my solar battery? How often this should be done and what is the replacement cost per pole?- What actions are important during the performance of the solar street light for preservation of battery life?It is best to ask for a brief training of how batteries work and what do's and dont's are relevant to increase the battery life cycle.Each type of battery has certain quality, however if your solar street light system is managed remotely by a dedicated cloud software with real-time data analytics, including interpretation and monitoring by solar industry professionals, your solar battery can last up to 10 years. Regardless of what solar providers tell you, without smart technology and close monitoring, on average solar batteries last 3-5 years (battery replacement costs around 600 USD per unit).Important note: It is always better if the solar battery is placed underground during installation of the solar system since temperature fluctuations are less severe under the Earth's surface. Such placement prolongs battery life and keeps the battery temperature below dangerous levels during severely cold or extremely hot weather.4. The performance of solar energy lights is dependent on the weather, without sunlight there is no more than 5 days of solar system autonomy.Your questions to the seller:- How long can my solar street lights operate without sunlight?- How can I improve my solar street lights energy generation to counter prolonged bad weather periods?- When should I go for solar on grid system instead of solar off-the-grid installations?In case of large installations of solar street lights in locations that cannot generate enough solar energy (locations which are not much exposed to sun - shading, extreme climate), you can opt for a solar controller with back up grid power. This device controls the amount of power that is pulled from the electric grid to ensure that grid power is only drawn when needed and that maximum solar energy is first obtained. With both solar and grid available to charge the batteries, your solar street lights will have enough power even when there is not enough sunlight. Another option for solar on grid systems is to feed in the solar energy obtained during the day in the grid and to pull energy from the grid to power the LED lights during the night. The energy efficiency of solar street lights and the difference in feed in tariffs make this option profitable.In case of off-the-grid solar installations, the best solution to counter bad weather and achieve maximum autonomy is to usecloud software for remote management of each street light unit. Weather predictability algorithms are another very innovative feature which is included in the most reliable remote management systems. Weather predictability will help you optimize your solar lighting system and predict lower energy periods in order to ensure LED light performance even during prolonged bad weather events. Increasing energy efficiency and conserving additional power through motion sensors and dimming functionalities with pre-set lighting schedules will significantly improve the autonomy of your solar street lights. With careful system optimization based on weather predictability algorithms and gathered solar off-the-grid data, you street lights can have up to 365 days of autonomy (be functional regardless of the weather).Asking the Right Questions Part 2: Solar Energy Lights PROSThe main advantages of solar street lights include the following:1. Solar LED street lights are highly cost effective and energy efficient in the long-run.Your questions to the seller:- How do I decrease battery replacement and other maintenance costs to achieve higher ROI?- What savings should I expect from solar street lights compared to traditional lights?Remote management system is the key to always knowing what is going on with each component of your off-the-grid solar lighting system. With no remote monitoring tools in place, you would always have to send a technician to check each unit on-site and you will never have in-depth information in real-time on your system status. The better monitoring and control you have of your solar lighting system, the more savings you will have from free clean energy.With optimized solar LED street lighting system you will experience economies of scale of light performance and higher reliability than traditional street lights, better illumination, decreased maintenance costs (no need to replace bulbs and allocate resources for expensive on-site system checks) no CO2 emissions, free energy, remote control and monitoring functions that will boost your ROI. Over a 15 year period, smart solar street lights can generate combined savings (including free energy generation, energy savings through optimization and increased light performance as well as reduced maintenance costs) between 1500-2000 USD per street light unit.2. Solar LED street lights do not incur high installation costs and have much less systems to install.Your questions to the seller:- How long does it take to install one solar street light unit? How does the solar panel positioning affect the energy generation by the system?- What is the step by step installation procedure?- What are the solar system's safety procedures in case of a problem or malfunction? How do I know when something is wrong with my solar street light system?Finding the optimal angle for solar panels is very important for increasing their exposure to the sun and for highest energy performance. The optimal angle for solar panels depends on your installation location. Always ask for supporting documentation and installation guidelines so that you are fully aware of the procedures and the lead time for completion of this activity. The installation of one solar powered street light unit will take no more than a day, while the project preparation takes longer depending on the the number of installations, the location, logistics, product specifications and other parameters.Having a dedicated remote management system which is connected online with your solar street lights is the most convenient way for real-time monitoring of your off-the-grid system functionalities. Alarm notifications with pre-set value thresholds is a very good way to keep track of how your solar lighting system operates and what is the current status. To find out more about the benefits from having a remote management system for your street lights, check our previous blog on how much smart technology improves solar street lights.3. Solar LED street lights provide higher output when compared to traditional sodium lights.Your questions to the seller:- What is the replacement cycle for LED lamps?- If I dim the LED lights to 50% how much energy will I save? Do LED lights provide enough brightness at 50% capacity for convenient illumination?LED lights translate 80 percent of electrical energy into light while the rest is wasted as a heat. In traditional sodium lamps, 80% of the energy is wasted as heat and only 20% is utilized. The life cycle of LED lamps is equal to 11 years of continuous illumination or about 22 years of 50% operation. Contrary to traditional lights, LED lights do not burn out, but as time goes by their illumination lowers down and their brightness decreases. Therefore, you do not have to worry about regular LED replacements. The main differences between solar powered street lights and traditional lights are explained here.4. With the right monitoring technology and system optimization parameters, solar energy lights can be fully autonomous regardless of the weather conditions.Your questions to the seller:- Does this mean that I can have solar LED light all year long and need not to worry during rainy days and winter periods?- What is the cost per month to operate solar street lighting system monitored by smart technology? What are the savings generated from such smart applications versus the additional costs?The benefits of using smart technology to operate your off-the-grid solar lighting system significantly outweighs the cost. For example, if you have installed 1000 solar street lights, by prolonging battery life from 5 to 10 years, meaning you will need to change them once in 10 years, you will save 600.000 USD. The cost of using remote management system for operating your solar street light system is less than 30 USD per pole, meaning that in a 10 year period the total net savings from using smart technology, which would double your solar battery life, would be 300.000 USD. The reliability of solar street lights achieved by smart technology increases the confidence in the solar industry's future.5. Solar street lights are sustainable and environmentally friendly, utilizing renewable energy sources.Your questions to the seller:- What are the available financing and subsidy schemes for renewable energy projects available in my country?Renewable energy replaces the need for producing electricity by using fossil fuels, which cuts greenhouse gas emissions and facilitates sustainable development. That is why most of the countries are eligible for international green energy financing schemes and grants while local governments provide different subsidy frameworks for implementing renewable energy projects.Check this comparative study on energy financing schemes in EU countries. Solar street light companies may also be able to offer you convenient financing programs for your street lighting project with affordable terms dependent on the project's expected energy outputs.We hope we have helped you learn more about the advantages and disadvantages of solar street lights and what information to ask from the solar companies when considering this product. Overall, the pros of solar energy lights far outweigh the cons, especially if you are looking for lighting solutions that are energy efficient, have lower overall costs, are environmentally sustainable, and last a long time if supported by smart technology. Follow our next blog on solar street lights applications·RELATED QUESTIONWhat is proffesional led stage lighting?When you're putting on an occasion, whether it is an unassuming school play or a party, stage lighting rental is an unquestionable requirement. Lighting is a main thrust of your production, giving brightening, center, detail and modifying the view of the group of audience. There is nothing that so vitally passes on an inclination superior to a decent lighting system, and with boundless inventive potential, will serve as an immense advantage for your creation.Focus, position and hanging:Conventional stage lighting must be set up because of these three contemplations. Focus refers to where the light will point; position alludes to where the light will start from; hanging refers to the real demonstration of hanging the light. Shading, force and example (assuming any) should be considered next.Types of stage lighting :Ellipsoidal - these lights are the conventional stage lights and thought to be the most critical. They are centering lights, the appearance in front of an audience of which can be adjusted by screens and channels.Fresnel - these lights are utilized for shading washes on the stage.Standard Jars - these lights are the sort you will see in even the dingiest of bars. Continuously a strong choice, standard jars can get hammered, are sturdy and simple to transport.Follow spots - these are spotlights used to pursue somebody around a phase.Obviously, there are increasingly choices accessible for stage lighting with the consistent progress of innovation. Presently you have the fundamentals; here are a couple of more alternatives:LEDs - these Professional LED Stage Lightingare useful for centered pillars and have been gradually supplanting conventional globules in stage lighting.Dizzies - these lights are round circles with a few Drove lights (more often than not of varying hues) covering the surface. The circle pivots in an assortment of bearings and examples, making a whirling, confounding example, consequently the name.Gels - this term alludes to the hues given to lights. They function as shading channels, and should work in congruity with the shade of the light itself to accomplish the craved impact.Once you have got your types of lighting down, you'll have to consider where to place them. Here's an essential summary of lighting positions:Front - This is utilized for the most part for perceivability and shading impacts. Side - can be utilized to awesome impact to complement activity.Back - Additionally utilized for impact. This kind of lighting can make the dream of profundity on a phase, or notwithstanding to silhouette a man totally.
Things You May Want to Know About New Solar Lights
An Introduction to new solar lightsWho told you Pluto is a star? You may be conflating a debated theory about Saturn and Jupiter being failed stars. Otherwise Pluto was demoted from planet to dwarf planet like Ceres in our Solar System. The new last planet is now Xena - renamed to ERIS. But that is debated too. Some think it is just a Kuiper Belt object like PlutoAny lighting people out there? of new solar lightsThere are many new solar lights on the market. they all charge a battery so the the better the batterie the longer the light lasts. By a good one. and take into consideration what the throw will be may 2 would be better. 400 ft is a long way longer then a football field so running electricity would be costlyLight Pollution: Finding the Best Way to Live With the Tyranny of the Majority of new solar lightsThis morning I journeyed to the outhouse in a landscape so flooded by moonlight I didn't need a flashlight, even though I was walking over the uneven surface of pahoehoe lava. On my way back I saw a dozen new solar lights that a neighbor had installed during my last trip.It made me sad, and a little angry. I live in a world beleaguered by light pollution. I moved out to the Kalapana Gardens lava field in 2007 when there were fewer than 6 homes in the subdivision; now there are over 50 and every year we get a few more. Many of my neighbors have chosen to light up their yards at night, every year taking away more and more of my eyes' ability to fully dilate in order to appreciate the full magnificence of the stars and the glow of the lava at night.I understand the convenience of light pollution. The ability to light up the night and extend productive hours is a key aspect of modern civilization. I often use electricity for light when it's dark.I feel frustrated, though, when people have lights on at night when nobody's using them. Solar lights charge every day and shine all night whether anyone needs to see by their light or not. Their invention has greatly increased the number of artificial lights I see at night. It makes me sad how popular they are.Solar lights mar the nighttime scenery for me, in part because they show me how out of step I am with today's U.S. citizens. I go through my house and cover up digital clocks and electronic displays as best I can in order to decrease light pollution; meanwhile my neighbors and friends are spending time and energy to increase light pollution.It reminds me of this year's election between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton. How is it possible for people to live side by side with each other when their values are opposite? If one person wants light, and the other doesn't, who gets to win? If one person wants oil pipelines and the other doesn't, who wins? If one person wants government-subsidized health care and the other doesn't, who wins?One way to deal with the issue is segregation. Just as animals in the zoo have different and separate habitats to take care of their different and separate needs, humans can have different habitats for people with different values. If I moved to an Amish area, I imagine I would be delighted at the lack of light pollution. Gated communities with CCRs help like-minded people find each other to live together; I could create a subdivision with rules that prohibit lights at night except when they are in direct use. I could move to a different country, perhaps one that is so poor that nobody would think to waste money on unused lights at night. I could segregate myself, moving to an isolated property with no visible neighbors, far away from any glow of a distant town or city.I often segregate myself, choosing separation over a change in my values. What I've noticed is that being alone in my values doesn't feel as good as being surrounded by people who have the same values as me. I have the body of a social mammal, with a brain wired to respond to the approval and acceptance of other mammals. I can override my social inclinations with rational logic; it feels better, though, when I don't have to, when my logical mind and my emotional body are both getting their needs met.In the case of my neighbors' solar lights, my logical mind knows that the LED lights are mostly eyesores; the light they emit is so weak it probably affects my night vision very little. It's mostly my emotional body that doesn't like being surrounded by people who seek out light pollution on purpose. It's a reminder that I'm the odd man out, the misfit in the group. It creates a fear of the future - what will happen when more people move in, and more and more light pollution infects my subdivision? Will I have to leave my beloved home because I have different values than the majority of my neighbors? If I have to abandon my home, it's my own fault. A little forethought could have shown that a subdivision is not the best place for somebody to live who likes a dark night, even a subdivision that had been abandoned because it was run over by lava 15 years ago.Unfortunately, human society in general does not seem like a good place for somebody to live who likes a dark night, which is perhaps why the proliferation of light pollution makes me feel so isolated and alone. I'm guessing that many people feel isolated and alone for some reason - maybe they're the only vegan in their school, or the only one who hates swimming among their friends, or the only one at the 4th of July family reunion who hates fireworks. We are all bundles of preferences, and we're bound to be the odd man out at least some of the time.For myself, the quest for like-minded people goes on. The older I get, the more I can distinguish between the issues that matter more to me and the issues that matter less. As your roommate, I don't care if you leave dirty dishes in the sink for a week, but I do not want to live with you if you are going to throw compost and recycling into the trash. The quality of my life is affected far more by the latter than by the former. Other people, with other values, will feel the opposite. I won't take it personally if they don't want to live with me, and I hope they don't take it personally that I don't want to live with them.Even though the light pollution has increased in my subdivision, it's still one of the better places for stargazing. Being off-grid helps; there aren't too many bright lights at night because most people want to use their limited electricity for something else. Living close to the Mauna Kea observatories helps, because the local towns have policies to reduce light pollution in order to help the astronomers see better at night. Even though my predilection for dark at night is a minority position, I've found an area with some influences to keep it on the darker side even as the population swells with light-lovers.Living in the body of a social mammal while surrounded by people who have different values from me is not easy. It is part of the human condition to balance personal preferences with the needs of the group. I imagine different people have different strategies depending on their values. For me, if the tyranny of the majority encroaches in an area that I care about deeply, I remove myself from the situation as best I can and seek out a new situation where the majority opinion is the same as mine, even if it means living alone so that mine is the only vote
Installation of Greenhouse and Solar Lights
Energy conservation is a very important task to promote nowadays. With energy depletion on the rise, we should start conserving or lose out on them. One of the pretty amazing ways of conservation of energy is by building the greenhouse and using solar-powered electric appliances. Uses Of Greenhouses Greenhouses can help you significantly if you love to grow trees and plants in your backyard. Greenhouses maintain a stable environment inside its structure, allowing the user to control the temperature and other factors like humidity and warmth according to the plants that are supposed to grow inside it. It provides the following advantages- • Consistent temperature and humidity for the growth of organic plants and crops. • Provides shelter to the plants from extreme weather conditions and keeps them protected from inflicting damage. • Helps to maintain an optimum atmosphere inside the structure for the whole year. • You can also save a lot of money because you will not need to keep replanting the trees which might have got damaged due to unfavorable weather conditions. • Provides a good and aesthetic look to the overall gardening experience. So as you can see that greenhouses have a plethora of advantages and you can easily buy the necessary tools and items required to build it from various online sites. Uses Of Solar Lights Solar Lights are a great way of conserving energy. Using solar lights in your garden and outdoors, you will not have to worry about any power faults because they will remain powered by the sun's energy. They are eco-friendly and do not emit any harmful gases or emissions. Being a renewable source of power, solar lights will keep your property lighted up throughout the year and available to you anywhere you establish them. You can get your hands on solar equipment easily from various online stores.
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